SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
☐ TRANSITION REPORT UNDER SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____________ to ___________________
Commission file number: 001-38325
Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
or other jurisdiction
of incorporation or organization)
Irvine, California 92618
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
|Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:|
Title of Each Class:
Common Stock, $0.00001 par value
Warrant to Purchase Common Stock
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered:
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
|Large accelerated filer||☐||Accelerated filer||☐|
|Non-accelerated filer||☒||Smaller reporting company||☒|
|Emerging growth company||☒|
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020 (the last business date of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter), based on the last sale price of the registrant’s common stock on such date was $9,244,443.
As of March 25, 2021, there were 8,503,636 shares of common stock outstanding.
HANCOCK JAFFE LABORATORIES, INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|ITEM 1. Business||2|
|ITEM 1A. Risk Factors||8|
|ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments||33|
|ITEM 2. Properties||33|
|ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings||33|
|ITEM 4. Mine and Safety Disclosures||33|
|ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer of Equity Securities||34|
|ITEM 6. Selected Financial Data||34|
|ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations||35|
|ITEM 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures and Market Risk||42|
|ITEM 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data||42|
|ITEM 9. Changes In and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosures||43|
|ITEM 9A. Controls and Procedures||43|
|ITEM 9B. Other Information||43|
|ITEM 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance||44|
|ITEM 11. Executive Compensation||52|
|ITEM 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters||63|
|ITEM 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence||64|
|ITEM 14. Principal Accounting Fees and Services||66|
|ITEM 15. Exhibits and Financial Statements Schedules||66|
|ITEM 16. Form 10-K Summary||68|
|Financial Statements and Supplementary Data||F-1|
CAUTIONARY NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains, or may contain, certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such forward-looking statements involve significant risks and uncertainties. Such statements may include, without limitation, statements with respect to the Company’s plans, objectives, projections, expectations and intentions and other statements identified by words such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “believes,” “expects,” “anticipates,” “estimates,” “intends,” “plans,” “potential” or similar expressions. These statements are based upon the current beliefs and expectations of the Company’s management and do not constitute guarantees of future performance. Actual results could differ materially from those contained in the forward-looking statements and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties, including those discussed under “Risk Factors,” as well as those discussed elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Actual results (including, without limitation, the actual timing for and results of the clinical trials described herein, and FDA review of the Company’s products in development) may differ significantly from those set forth in the forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that are subject to change based on various factors (many of which are beyond the Company’s control).
You are further cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this Form 10-K or, in the case of documents referred to or incorporated by reference, the date of those documents.
All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or any person acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements contained or referred to in this section. We do not undertake any obligation to release publicly any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this Form 10-K or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except as may be required under applicable U.S. securities law. If we do update one or more forward-looking statements, no inference should be drawn that we will make additional updates with respect to those or other forward-looking statements.
Unless the context requires otherwise, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to “we,” “us,” “our,” “our company,” “HJLI”, or similar terminology refer to Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc.
We use our registered trademarks and trade names, such as VenoValve® and CoreoGraft®™, in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus appear without the ® and ™ symbols, but those references are not intended to indicate that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or that the applicable owner will not assert its rights, to these trademarks and trade names. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc. is a medical device company developing tissue-based devices that are designed to be life sustaining or life enhancing for patients with cardiovascular disease, and peripheral arterial and venous disease. The Company’s products are being developed to address large unmet medical needs by either offering treatments where none currently exist or by substantially increasing the current standards of care. Our products which we are developing include: the VenoValve®, a porcine based device to be surgically implanted in the deep venous system of the leg to treat a debilitating condition called chronic venous insufficiency (“CVI”); and the CoreoGraft®, a bovine based conduit to be used to revascularize the heart during coronary artery bypass graft (“CABG”) surgeries. Both of these products are currently being developed for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”). Our current senior management team has been affiliated with more than 50 products that have received FDA approval or CE marking. We currently lease a 14,507 sq. ft. manufacturing facility in Irvine, California, where we manufacture products for our clinical trials and which has previously been FDA certified for commercial manufacturing of devices.
Each of our products will be required to successfully complete significant clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product before it will be able to be approved by the FDA.
Chronic venous disease (“CVD”) is the world’s most prevalent chronic disease. CVD is generally classified using a standardized system known as CEAP (clinical, etiological, anatomical, and pathophysiological). The CEAP system consists of seven clinical classifications (C0 to C6) with C5 to C6 being the most severe cases of CVD.
Chronic Venous Insufficiency (“CVI”) is a subset of CVD and is generally used to describe patients with C4 to C6 CVD. CVI is a condition that affects the venous system of the leg causing pain, swelling, edema, skin changes, and ulcerations. In order for blood to return to the heart from the foot, ankle, and lower leg, the calf muscle pushes the blood up the veins of the leg and through a series of one-way valves. Each valve is supposed to open as blood passes through, and then close as blood moves up the leg to the next valve. CVI occurs when the one-way valves in the veins of the leg fail and become incompetent. When the valves fail, blood flows backwards and in the wrong direction (reflux). As blood pools in the lower leg, pressure inside the veins increases (venous hypertension). Reflux, and the resulting venous hypertension, causes the leg to swell, resulting in debilitating pain, and in the most severe cases, venous ulcers. The VenoValve is being developed to treat CVI in the deep venous system with a focus on severe patients with C4b, C5 and C6 CVI.
Estimates indicate that approximately 2.4 million people in the U.S. have C5 to C6 CVI in the deep venous system, including patients that develop venous leg ulcers (C6 patients). Over one million new severe cases of CVI occur each year in the U.S., mostly from patients who have experienced a deep vein thrombosis (blood clot). The average patient seeking treatment of a venous ulcer spends as much as $30,000 a year on wound care, and the total direct medical costs from venous ulcer sufferers in the U.S. has been estimated to exceed $38 billion a year. Aside from the direct medical costs, severe CVI sufferers experience a significantly reduced quality of life. Daily activities such as preparing meals, housework, and personal hygiene (washing and bathing) become difficult due to reduced mobility. For many severe CVI sufferers, intense pain, which frequently occurs at night, prevents patients from getting adequate sleep. Severe CVI sufferers are known to miss approximately 40% more work days than the average worker. A high percentage of venous ulcer patients also experience severe itching, leg swelling, and an odorous discharge. Wound dressing changes, which occur several times a week, can be extremely painful. Venous ulcers from deep venous CVI are very difficult to heal, and a significant percentage of venous ulcers remain unhealed for more than a year. Even if healed, recurrence rates for venous ulcers are known to be high (20% to 40%) within the first year and as high as 60% after five years.
The VenoValve is a porcine based valve developed at HJLI to be implanted in the deep venous system of the leg to treat severe CVI. By reducing reflux, and lowering venous hypertension, the VenoValve has the potential to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of deep venous, severe CVI, including venous leg ulcers. The current version of the VenoValve is designed to be surgically implanted into the patient via a 5 to 6 inch incision in the upper thigh.
There are presently no FDA approved medical devices to address valvular incompetence, or effective treatments for deep venous CVI. Current treatment options include compression garments, or constant leg elevation. These treatments are generally ineffective, as they attempt to alleviate the symptoms of CVI without addressing the underlying causes of the disease. In addition, we believe that compliance with compression garments and leg elevation is extremely low, especially among the elderly. Valve transplants from other parts of the body have been attempted, but with very-poor results. Many attempts to create substitute valves have also failed, usually resulting in early thromboses. The premise behind the VenoValve is that by reducing the underlying causes of CVI, reflux and venous hypertension, the debilitating symptoms of CVI will decrease, resulting in improvement in the quality of the lives of CVI sufferers.
There are approximately 2.4 million people in the U.S. that suffer from deep venous CVI due to valvular incompetence.
VenoValve Clinical Status
After consultation with the FDA, and as a precursor to the U.S. pivotal trial, we conducted a small first-in-human study for the VenoValve in Colombia. The first-in-human Colombian trial included 11 patients. In addition to providing safety and efficacy data, the purpose of the first-in-human study was to provide proof of concept, and to provide valuable feedback to make any necessary product modifications or adjustments to our surgical implantation procedures for the VenoValve prior to conducting the U.S. pivotal trial. In December of 2018, we received regulatory approval from Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (“INVIMA”), the Colombian equivalent of the FDA. On February 19, 2019, we announced that the first VenoValve was successfully implanted in a patient in Colombia. Between April of 2019 and December of 2019, we successfully implanted VenoValves in 10 additional patients, completing the implantations Colombian first-in-man study. Overall, VenoValves have been implanted in all 11 patients. Endpoints for the VenoValve first-in-human study include safety (device related adverse events), reflux, measured by doppler, a VCSS score used by the clinician to measure disease severity, and a VAS score used by the patient to measure pain.
All 11 patients have now completed the one-year first-in-human trial and final results from the study were released in December of 2020. Among the 11 patients, reflux improved an average of 54%, Venous Clinical Severity Scores (“VCSSs”) improved an average of 56%, and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, which are used by patients to measure pain, have improved an average of 76%, when compared to pre-surgery levels. VCSS scores are commonly used by clinicians in practice and in clinical trials to objectively assess outcomes in the treatment of venous disease, and include ten characteristics including pain, inflammation, skin changes such as pigmentation and induration, the number of active ulcers, and ulcer duration. The improvement in VCSS scores is significant and indicates that almost all of the VenoValve patients who had severe CVI pre-surgery, had mild CVI or the complete absence of disease at one-year post surgery.
VenoValve safety incidences were minor with no reported device related adverse events. Minor non-device related adverse safety issues included one (1) fluid pocket (which was aspirated), intolerance from Coumadin anticoagulation therapy, three (3) minor wound infections (treated with antibiotics), and one occlusion due to patient non-compliance with anti-coagulation therapy.
In preparation for the VenoValve U.S. pivotal trial, we submitted a Pre-IDE filing with the FDA in October of 2020 and had a pre IDE meeting with the FDA on January 11, 2021. Topics presented at the meeting included the background and clinical need for the VenoValve, proposed U.S. pivotal study design, patient monitoring protocols for safety and efficacy, bench testing protocols used to develop the device, and the VenoValve first-in-human results. We received valuable feedback from the FDA in several areas during the Pre-IDE meeting and believe we reached consensus on many important issues.
An investigational device exemption or IDE from the FDA is required before a medical device company can proceed with a pivotal trial for a class III medical device. On March 5, 2021 we filed an IDE application with the FDA for the VenoValve U.S. pivotal trial. Based in-part upon feedback received from the FDA during the Pre-IDE meeting, we proposed a prospective, non-blinded, single arm, multi-center study of seventy-five (75) CVI patients enrolled at up to 20 U.S. sites. Proposed endpoints for the pivotal trial mirror those endpoints used for the first-in-human trial, and include the absence of material adverse safety events (mortality, deep wound infection, major bleeding, ipsilateral deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism) at thirty (30) days post implantation, reductions of reflux at one hundred and eighty days (180) days post VenoValve implantation, VCSS scoring to measure disease manifestations, VAS scores to measure pain, and quality of life measurements. We have significant interest from key opinion leaders and several of the top vascular clinicians in the U.S. who would like to participate in the VenoValve U.S. pivotal trial and are in the process of qualifying potential sites for the study.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death among men and women in the U.S. accounting for about 1 in every 4 deaths. Coronary heart disease is the most common type of heart disease, killing over 370,000 people each year. Coronary heart disease occurs when arteries around the heart become blocked or occluded, in most cases by plaque. Although balloon angioplasty with or without cardiac stents have become the norm if one or two arteries are blocked, coronary artery bypass surgery remains the treatment of choice for patients with multiple blocked arteries on both sides of the heart. Approximately 200,000 coronary artery bypass graft (“CABG”) surgeries take place each year in the U.S. and are the most commonly performed cardiac procedure. CABG surgeries alone account for 55% of all cardiac surgeries, and CABG surgeries when combined with valve replacement surgeries account for approximately 62% of all cardiac surgeries. The next largest category accounts for 10% of cardiac surgeries. The number of CABG surgeries are expected to increase as the population continues to age. On average, three grafts are used for each CABG surgery.
Although CABG surgeries are invasive, improved surgical techniques over the years have lowered the fatality rate from CABG surgeries to between 1% and 3% prior to discharge from the hospital. Arteries around heart are accessed via an incision along the sternum known as a sternotomy. Once the incision is made, the sternum (chest) is divided (“cracked”) to access the heart and its surrounding arteries.
CABG surgery is relatively safe and effective. In most instances, doctors prefer to use the left internal mammary artery (“LIMA”), an artery running inside the ribcage and close to the sternum, to re-vascularize the left side of the heart. Use of the LIMA to revascularize the left descending coronary artery (known as the “widow maker”) has become the gold standard for revascularizing the left side of the heart during CABG surgeries. For the right side of the heart, and where additional grafts are needed on the left side, the current standard of care is to harvest the saphenous vein from the patient’s leg to be dissected into pieces and used as bypass grafts around the heart. Unfortunately, saphenous vein grafts (“SVGs”) are not nearly as effective as the LIMA for revascularizing the heart. In fact, SVGs continue to be the weak link for CABG surgeries.
The saphenous vein harvest procedure is itself invasive. Either a long incision is made along the inner leg of the patient to harvest the vein, or the saphenous vein is extracted endoscopically. Regardless of the type of harvest procedure, bypass graft harvest remains an invasive and complication prone aspect of the CABG procedure. Present standard-of-care complications are described in recent published reports in major medical journals. The percentage of complications from the harvest procedure can be as high as 24%. This is mainly due to non-healing of the saphenous wound or development of infection in the area of the saphenous vein harvest site.
While the LIMA is known for excellent short term and long term patency rates, studies indicate that between 10% and 40% percent of SVGs that are used as conduits for CABG surgeries fail within the first year after the CABG surgery. A significant percentage fail within the first 30 days. At 10 years, the SVGs failure rate can be as high as 75%. When a graft fails, it becomes blocked or occluded, depriving the heart of blood flow. Mortality during the first year after bypass graft failure is very high, between 5% and 9%. For purposes of comparison, a 3% threshold is considered to be a high cardiac risk. In fact, a relatively recent study in Denmark has reported that mortality rates at 8 to 10 years after CABG surgery are as high as 60% to 80%. While a life expectancy of 8 to 10 years following CABG surgery may have been acceptable in the past, expectations have changed and with people now generally living longer, additional focus is now being placed on extending life expectancies following CABG surgeries.
Researchers have determined that there are two main causes of SVGs failure: size mismatch, and a thickening of the interior of the SVGs that begins immediately following the harvest procedure. Size mismatch occurs because the diameter of SVGs is often significantly larger than the diameter of the coronary arteries around the heart. This size mismatch causes flow disturbances, leading to graft thromboses and graft failure. The thickening of the cell walls of SVGs occur when a layer of endothelial cells on the inner surface of the SVGs are disturbed beginning at the harvesting procedure, starting a chain reaction which causes the cells to thicken and the inside of the graft to narrow, resulting in blood clots and graft failure.
The CoreoGraft is a bovine based off the shelf conduit that could potentially be used to revascularize the heart, instead of harvesting the saphenous vein from the patient’s leg. In addition to avoiding the invasive and painful SVG harvest process, HJLI’s CoreoGraft closely matches the size of the coronary arteries, eliminating graft failures that occur due to size mismatch. In addition, with no graft harvest needed, the CoreoGraft could also reduce or eliminate the inner thickening that burdens and leads to failure of the SVGs.
In addition to providing a potential alternative to SVGs, the CoreoGraft could be used when making grafts from the patients’ own arteries and veins is not an option. For example, patients with significant arterial and vascular disease often do not have suitable vessels to be used as grafts. For other patients, such as women who have undergone radiation treatment for breast cancer and have a higher incidence of heart disease, using the LIMA may not be an option if it was damaged by the radiation. Another example are patients undergoing a second CABG surgery. Due in large part to early SVG failures, patients may need a second CABG surgery. If the SVG was used for the first CABG surgery, the patient may have insufficient veins to harvest. While the CoreoGraft may start out as a product for patients with no other options, if the CoreoGraft establishes good short term and long term patency rates, it could become the graft of choice for all CABG patients in addition to the LIMA.
In January of 2020, we announced the results of a six-month, nine sheep, animal feasibility study for the CoreoGraft. Bypasses were accomplished by attaching the CoreoGrafts from the ascending aorta to the left anterior descending artery, and surgeries were preformed both on-pump and off-pump. Partners for the feasibility study included the Texas Heart Institute, and American Preclinical Services.
Test subjects were evaluated via angiograms and flow monitors during the study, and a full pathology examination of the CoreoGrafts and the surrounding tissue was performed post necropsy.
The results from the feasibility study demonstrated that the CoreoGrafts remained patent (open) and fully functional at 30, 90, and 180 day intervals after implantation. In addition, pathology examinations of the grafts and surrounding tissue at the conclusion of the study showed no signs of thrombosis, infection, aneurysmal degeneration, changes in the lumen, or other problems that are known to plague and lead to failure of SVGs.
In addition to exceptional patency, pathology examinations indicated full endothelialization for grafts implanted for 180 days both throughout the CoreoGrafts and into the left anterior descending arteries. Endothelium is a layer of cells that naturally exist throughout healthy veins and arteries and that act as a barrier between blood and the surrounding tissue, which helps promote the smooth passage of blood. Endothelium are known to produce a variety anti-clotting and other positive characteristics that are essential to healthy veins and arteries. The presence of full endothelialization within the longer term CoreoGrafts indicates that the graft is being accepted and assimilated in a manner similar to natural healthy veins and arteries that exist throughout the vascular system and is an indication of long-term biocompatibility.
In May of 2020, we announced that we had received approval from the Superintendent of Health of the National Health Counsel for the Republic of Paraguay to conduct a first-in-human trial for the CoreoGraft. Up to 5 patients that need coronary artery bypass graft surgery will receive CoreoGraft implants as part of the first-in-human study. In July of 2020, we announced that we had received permission to proceed with the first-in-human study, which had been put on hold due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and in August of 2020 we announced that the first two patients had been enrolled for the first-in-human CoreoGraft trial. Heart bypass surgeries for the first two patients to receive CoreoGraft implants as part of our first-in-human trial were successfully completed in October of 2020. A third bypass surgery using the CoreoGraft was successfully completed in November of 2020. Two CoreoGraft surgical patients have expired due to what we believe are non-device related adverse events, one in October and one in November of 2020. Pursuant to our protocol for the first-in-human trial, these events are being reviewed by a data and safety monitoring board and pending the outcome of the review, we expect to resume enrolling patients for the study in the second quarter of 2021.
Our product candidates and our operations are subject to extensive regulation by the FDA, and other federal and state authorities in the United States, as well as comparable authorities in foreign jurisdictions. Our product candidates are subject to regulation as medical devices in the United States under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”), as implemented and enforced by the FDA. The FDA regulates the development, design, non-clinical and clinical research, manufacturing, safety, efficacy, labeling, packaging, storage, installation, distribution, servicing, recordkeeping, premarket clearance or approval, adverse event reporting, advertising, promotion, marketing, and import and export of medical devices to ensure that medical devices distributed domestically are safe and effective for their intended uses and otherwise meet the requirements of the FDCA.
PMA Approval Pathway
Class III devices such as the VenoValve and the CoreoGraft generally require pre-market approval (PMA) before they can be marketed in the U.S. The PMA review and approval process is more demanding than the 510(k) premarket notification process. In a PMA, the manufacturer must demonstrate that the device is safe and effective, and the PMA must be supported by extensive data, including data from preclinical studies and human clinical trials. The PMA also must contain a full description of the device and its components, a full description of the methods, facilities and controls used for manufacturing, and proposed labeling. Following receipt of a PMA, the FDA determines whether the application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review. If FDA accepts the application for review, it has 180 days under the FDCA to complete its review of a PMA, although in practice, the FDA’s review often takes significantly longer, and can take several years. An advisory panel of experts from outside the FDA may be convened to review and evaluate the application and provide recommendations to the FDA as to the approvability of the device. The FDA may or may not accept the panel’s recommendation. In addition, the FDA generally will conduct a pre-approval inspection of the applicant or its third-party manufacturers’ manufacturing facility or facilities to ensure compliance with the QSR. The FDA will approve the new device for commercial distribution if it determines that the data and information in the PMA constitute valid scientific evidence and that there is reasonable assurance that the device is safe and effective for its intended use(s).
The FDA may approve a PMA with post-approval conditions intended to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the device, including, among other things, restrictions on labeling, promotion, sale and distribution, and collection of long-term follow-up data from patients in the clinical study that supported PMA approval, or requirements to conduct additional clinical studies post-approval. The FDA may condition PMA approval on some form of post-market surveillance when deemed necessary to protect the public health or to provide additional safety and efficacy data for the device in a larger population or for a longer period of use. In such cases, the manufacturer might be required to follow certain patient groups for a number of years and to make periodic reports to the FDA on the clinical status of those patients. Failure to comply with the conditions of approval can result in material adverse enforcement action, including withdrawal of the approval. Certain changes to an approved device, such as changes in manufacturing facilities, methods or quality control procedures, or changes in the design performance specifications, which affect the safety or effectiveness of the device, require submission of a PMA supplement. PMA supplements often require submission of the same type of information as a PMA, except that the supplement is limited to information needed to support any changes from the device covered by the original PMA and may not require as extensive clinical data or the convening of an advisory panel. Certain other changes to an approved device require the submission of a new PMA, such as when the design change causes a different intended use, mode of operation and technical basis of operation, or when the design change is so significant that a new generation of the device will be developed, and the data that were submitted with the original PMA are not applicable for the change in demonstrating a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness. We believe that the VenoValve and the CoreoGraft each will require the approval of a PMA.
Clinical Trials in Support of PMA
Clinical trials are almost always required to support a PMA submission. All clinical investigations of devices to determine safety and effectiveness must be conducted in accordance with the FDA’s investigational device exemption (IDE) regulations, which govern investigational device labeling, prohibit promotion of the investigational device and specify an array of recordkeeping, reporting and monitoring responsibilities of study sponsors and study investigators. If the device presents a “significant risk,” to human health, as defined by the FDA, the FDA requires the device sponsor to submit an IDE application to the FDA, which must become effective prior to commencing human clinical trials. A significant risk device is one that presents a potential for serious risk to the health, safety or welfare of a patient and either is implanted, used in supporting or sustaining human life, substantially important in diagnosing, curing, mitigating or treating disease or otherwise preventing impairment of human health, or otherwise presents a potential for serious risk to a subject. Both the VenoValve and the CoreoGraft will likely require IDE applications prior to human testing in the United States.
An IDE application must be supported by appropriate data, such as animal and laboratory test results, showing that it is safe to test the device in humans and that the testing protocol is scientifically sound. The IDE will automatically become effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA unless the FDA notifies the company that the investigation may not begin. If the FDA determines that there are deficiencies or other concerns with an IDE for which it requires modification, the FDA may permit a clinical trial to proceed under a conditional approval.
In addition to IDE approval, a human, the study must be approved by, and conducted under the oversight of, an Institutional Review Board, or IRB, for each clinical site. The IRB is responsible for the initial and continuing review of the study, and may pose additional requirements for the conduct of the study. If an IDE application is approved by the FDA and one or more IRBs, human clinical trials may begin at a specific number of investigational sites with a specific number of patients, as approved by the FDA. Acceptance of an IDE application for review does not guarantee that the FDA will allow the IDE to become effective and, if it does become effective, the FDA may or may not determine that the data derived from the trials support the safety and effectiveness of the device or warrant the continuation of clinical trials. An IDE supplement must be submitted to, and approved by, the FDA before a sponsor or investigator may make a change to the investigational plan that may affect its scientific soundness, study plan or the rights, safety or welfare of human subjects. During a study, the sponsor is required to comply with the applicable FDA requirements, including, for example, trial monitoring, selecting clinical investigators and providing them with the investigational plan, ensuring IRB review, adverse event reporting, record keeping and prohibitions on the promotion of investigational devices or on making safety or effectiveness claims for them. The clinical investigators in the clinical study are also subject to FDA’s regulations and must obtain patient informed consent, rigorously follow the investigational plan and study protocol, control the disposition of the investigational device and comply with all reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Additionally, after a trial begins, we, the FDA or the IRB could suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time for various reasons, including a belief that the risks to study subjects outweigh the anticipated benefits.
After a device is cleared or approved for marketing, numerous and pervasive regulatory requirements continue to apply. These include: establishing registration and device listing with the FDA; QSR requirements, which require manufacturers, including third-party manufacturers, to follow stringent design, testing, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during all aspects of the design and manufacturing process; labeling regulations and FDA prohibitions against the promotion of investigational products, or “off-label” uses of cleared or approved products; requirements related to promotional activities; clearance or approval of product modifications that could significantly affect safety or effectiveness or that would constitute a major change in intended use of one of our cleared devices; medical device reporting regulations, which require that a manufacturer report to the FDA if a device it markets may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury, or has malfunctioned and the device or a similar device that it markets would be likely to cause or contribute to a death or serious injury, if the malfunction were to recur; correction, removal and recall reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers report to the FDA field corrections and product recalls or removals if undertaken to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the FDCA; and post-market surveillance activities and regulations.
Regulation Outside of the U.S.
Each country or territory outside of the U.S. has its own rules and regulations with respect to the manufacture, marketing and sale of medical devices. For example, in December of 2018, we received regulatory approval from Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (“INVIMA”), the Colombian equivalent of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, for our first-in-human trial for the VenoValve in Colombia. At this time, other than the first-in-human trial in Colombia, we have not determined which countries outside of the U.S., if any, for which we will seek approval for our product candidates.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe we will offer the cardiovascular device market a compelling value proposition with the launch of our two product candidates, if approved, for the following reasons:
|●||We have extensive experience of proprietary processing and manufacturing methodology specifically applicable to the design, processing, manufacturing and sterilization of our biologic tissue devices.|
|●||We operate a 14,507 square foot manufacturing facility in Irvine, California. Our facility is designed expressly for the manufacture of Class III tissue based implantable medical devices and is equipped for research and development, prototype fabrication, current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP, and manufacturing and shipping for Class III medical devices, including biologic cardiovascular devices.|
|●||We have attracted senior executives who are experienced in research and development and who have worked on over 50 medical devices that have received FDA approval or CE marking. We also have the advantage of an experienced board of directors and scientific advisory board who will provide guidance as we move towards market launch.|
We possess an extensive proprietary processing and manufacturing methodology specifically applicable to the design, processing, manufacturing and sterilization of biologic devices. This includes FDA compliant quality control and assurance programs, proprietary tissue processing technologies demonstrated to eliminate recipient immune responses, trusted relationship with abattoir suppliers, and a combination of tissue preservation and gamma irradiation that enhances device functions and guarantees sterility. We have filed several patent applications for the VenoValve and CoreoGraft with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and throughout the world. In February of 2021, we received a notice for allowance from the USPTO for an application focusing on novel aspects of the VenoValve Frame.
As of March 19, 2021, we had 19 full-time employees. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining agreement, and we have never experienced any work stoppage. We believe we have good relations with our employees.
We were incorporated in Delaware on December 22, 1999. Our principal executive offices are located at 70 Doppler, Irvine, California, 92618, and our telephone number is (949) 261-2900. Our corporate website address is www.hancockjaffe.com. The information contained on or accessible through our website is not a part of this prospectus, and the inclusion of our website address in this prospectus is an inactive textual reference only.
|ITEM 1A.||Risk Factors|
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report, before deciding to invest in our securities. If any of the following risks materialize, our business, financial condition, results of operation and prospects will likely be materially and adversely affected. In that event, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment.
The risk factors described below are a summary of the principal risk factors associated with an investment in us. These are not the only risks we face. You should carefully consider these risk factors and the other reports and documents filed by us with the SEC.
We have incurred significant losses since our inception, expect to incur significant losses in the future and may never achieve or sustain profitability;
We currently depend entirely on the successful and timely regulatory approval and commercialization of our two product candidates, which may not receive regulatory approval or, if any of our product candidates do receive regulatory approval, we may not be able to successfully commercialize them;
|●||The success of our products will be determined based on whether surgeons and patients in our target markets accept our product candidates, if approved;|
|●||Failure to scale up of the manufacturing process of our product candidates in a timely manner, or at all;|
|●||Our ability to retain and recruit key personnel, including the development of a sales and marketing infrastructure;|
|●||Reliance on third party suppliers for certain components of our product candidates;|
|●||If we successfully develop our product candidates, our ability to sell or license our products to third parties and thereafter our reliance on such third parties to commercialize and distribute our product candidates in the United States and internationally, and if we are unable to sell or license our products to third parties, our ability to commercialize our products on our own, in which case we would have to demonstrate the efficacy and financial viability of our products to doctors, hospitals, insurance companies, and other stakeholders;|
|●||Changes in external competitive market factors;|
|●||Uncertainties in generating sustained revenue or achieving profitability;|
|●||Unanticipated working capital or other cash requirements;|
|●||Changes in FDA regulations, including testing procedures, for medical devices and related promotional and marketing activities;|
|●||Our estimates of our expenses, ongoing losses, future revenue, capital requirements and our needs for, or ability to obtain, additional financing;|
|●||Our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our product candidates;|
|●||Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities, limit sales of our existing product candidates and limit commercialization of any products that we may develop;|
|●||Our ability to consummate future acquisitions or strategic transactions;|
|●||Our ability to maintain the listing of our securities on the Nasdaq Capital Market; and|
|●||Changes in our business strategy or an inability to execute our strategy due to unanticipated changes in the medical device industry.|
Risks Related to Our Business and Strategy
We have incurred significant losses since our inception, expect to incur significant losses in the future and may never achieve or sustain profitability.
We have historically incurred substantial net losses, including net losses of $9,135,486, $7,625,397, $13,042,709, $7,791,469 and $3,387,490 for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. As a result of our historical losses, we had an accumulated deficit of $65,323,411 as of December 31, 2020. Our losses have resulted primarily from costs related to general and administrative expenses relating to our operations, as well as our research programs and the development of our product candidates. Currently, we are not generating revenue from operations, and we expect to incur losses for the foreseeable future as we seek to obtain regulatory approval for our product candidates. Additionally, we expect that our general and administrative expenses will increase due to the additional operational and reporting costs associated with being a public company as well as the projected expansion of our operations. We do not expect to generate significant revenue until any of our product candidates are licensed or sold, if ever. We may never generate significant revenue or become profitable. Even if we do achieve profitability, we may be unable to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis. Our failure to achieve and subsequently sustain profitability could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
We currently depend entirely on the successful and timely regulatory approval and commercialization of our two product candidates, which may not receive regulatory approval or, if any of our product candidates do receive regulatory approval, we may not be able to successfully commercialize them.
We currently have two product candidates (the CoreoGraft and the VenoValve) and our business presently depends entirely on our success with our product candidates. In order for our product candidates to succeed the products need to be approved by regulatory authorities, which may never happen. Our product candidates are based on technologies that have not been used previously in the manner we propose. Market acceptance of our product candidates will largely depend on our ability to demonstrate their relative safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness and ease of use. We may not be able to successfully develop and commercialize our product candidates. If we fail to do so, we will not be able to generate substantial revenues, if any.
We are subject to rigorous and extensive regulation by the FDA in the United States and by comparable agencies in other jurisdictions, including the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, in the European Union, or EU. Our product candidates are currently in development and we have not received FDA approval for our product candidates. Our product candidates may not be marketed in the United States until they have been approved by the FDA and may not be marketed in other jurisdictions until they have received approval from the appropriate foreign regulatory agencies. Each product candidate requires significant research, development, preclinical testing and extensive clinical investigation before submission of any regulatory application for marketing approval.
Obtaining regulatory approval requires substantial time, effort and financial resources, and we may not be able to obtain approval of any of our product candidates on a timely basis, or at all. The number, size, design and focus of preclinical and clinical trials that will be required for approval by the FDA, the EMA or any other foreign regulatory agency varies depending on the device, the disease or condition that the product candidates are designed to address and the regulations applicable to any particular products. Preclinical and clinical data can be interpreted in different ways, which could delay, limit or preclude regulatory approval. The FDA, the EMA and other foreign regulatory agencies can delay, limit or deny approval of a product for many reasons, including, but not limited to:
|●||a product candidate may not be shown to be safe or effective;|
|●||the clinical and other benefits of a product candidate may not outweigh its safety risks;|
|●||we may not be able to enroll enough patients to complete our product studies;|
|●||clinical trial results may be negative or inconclusive, or adverse medical events may occur during a clinical trial;|
|●||trial patients may expire from reasons unrelated to our product, impairing our trials;|
|●||the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by regulatory agencies for approval;|
|●||regulatory agencies may interpret data from pre-clinical and clinical trials in different ways than we do;|
|●||regulatory agencies may not approve the manufacturing process or determine that the manufacturing is not in accordance with current good manufacturing practices, or cGMPs;|
|●||a product candidate may fail to comply with regulatory requirements; and/or|
|●||regulatory agencies might change their approval policies or adopt new regulations.|
If our product candidates are not approved at all or quickly enough to provide net revenues to defray our operating expenses, our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects could be harmed.
If we are unable to successfully raise additional capital, our future clinical trials and product development could be limited and our long-term viability may be threatened.
We have experienced negative operating cash flows since our inception and have funded our operations primarily from proceeds received from sales of our capital stock, the issuance of the convertible and non-convertible notes, and the sale of our products to larger medical device companies. We will need to seek additional funds in the future through equity or debt financings, or strategic alliances with third parties, either alone or in combination with equity financings to complete our product development initiatives. These financings could result in substantial dilution to the holders of our common stock, or require contractual or other restrictions on our operations or on alternatives that may be available to us. If we raise additional funds by issuing debt securities, these debt securities could impose significant restrictions on our operations. Any such required financing may not be available in amounts or on terms acceptable to us, and the failure to procure such required financing could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations, or threaten our ability to continue as a going concern.
Our present and future capital requirements will be significant and will depend on many factors, including:
|●||the progress and results of our development efforts for our product candidates;|
|●||the costs, timing and outcome of regulatory review of our product candidates;|
|●||the costs and timing of preparing, filing and prosecuting patent applications, maintaining and enforcing our intellectual property rights and defending any intellectual property-related claims;|
|●||the effect of competing technological and market developments;|
|●||market acceptance of our product candidates;|
|●||the rate of progress in establishing coverage and reimbursement arrangements with domestic and international commercial third-party payors and government payors;|
|●||the ability to achieve revenue growth and improve gross margins;|
|●||the extent to which we acquire or in-license other products and technologies; and|
|●||legal, accounting, insurance and other professional and business-related costs.|
We may not be able to acquire additional funds on acceptable terms, or at all. If we are unable to raise adequate funds, we may have to liquidate some or all of our assets or delay, reduce the scope of or eliminate some or all of our development programs.
If we do not have, or are not able to obtain, sufficient funds, we may be required to delay development or commercialization of our product candidates. We also may have to reduce the resources devoted to our product candidates or cease operations. Any of these factors could harm our operating results.
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly negatively impacted our business.
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the global economy and has negatively impacted large populations including people and businesses that may be directly or indirectly involved with the operation of our Company and the manufacturing, development, and testing of our product candidates. The full scope and economic impact of COVID-19 is still unknown and there are many risks from COVID-19 that could generally and negatively impact economies and healthcare providers in the countries where we do business, the medical device industry as a whole, and development stage, pre-revenue companies such as HJLI. The primary impacts of COVID-19 to our operations were stay-at-home work requirements, travel restrictions limiting our ability to initiate and continue animal studies and patient trials and disruptions to scheduled meetings with regulatory agencies such as the FDA. Notwithstanding these impacts, we were able to use remote work tools, communications solutions, and other methods to continue our trials and regulatory submissions with minimal impact to our overall development timeline. While many of these restrictions are currently relaxed, there can be no assurance we will be able similarly adjust if they are put back in place in the future. At this time, we have identified the following COVID-19 related risks that we believe have a greater likelihood of negatively impacting our company specific, including, but not limited to:
|●||Federal, State and local shelter-in-place directives which limit our employees from accessing our facility to manufacture, develop and test our product candidates;|
|●||Travel restrictions and quarantine requirements which prevent us from initiating and continuing animal studies and patient trials both inside and outside of the United States;|
|●||The burden on hospitals and medical personnel resulting in the cancellation of non-essential medical procedures such as surgical procedures needed to implant our product candidates for pre-clinical and clinical trials;|
|●||Delays in the procurement of certain supplies and equipment that are needed to develop and test our product candidates;|
Travel restrictions which prevent patients from participating and continuing the participation in clinical trials.
We may engage in future acquisitions or strategic transactions which may require us to seek additional financing or financial commitments, increase our expenses and/or present significant distractions to our management.
In the event we engage in an acquisition or strategic transaction, we may need to acquire additional financing (particularly, if the acquired entity is not cash flow positive or does not have significant cash on hand). Obtaining financing through the issuance or sale of additional equity and/or debt securities, if possible, may not be at favorable terms and may result in additional dilution to our current stockholders. Additionally, any such transaction may require us to incur non-recurring or other charges, may increase our near and long-term expenditures and may pose significant integration challenges or disrupt our management or business, which could adversely affect our operations and financial results. For example, an acquisition or strategic transaction may entail numerous operational and financial risks, including the risks outlined above and additionally:
|●||exposure to unknown liabilities;|
|●||disruption of our business and diversion of our management’s time and attention in order to develop acquired products or technologies;|
|●||higher than expected acquisition and integration costs;|
|●||write-downs of assets or goodwill or impairment charges;|
|●||increased amortization expenses;|
|●||difficulty and cost in combining the operations and personnel of any acquired businesses with our operations and personnel;|
|●||impairment of relationships with key suppliers or customers of any acquired businesses due to changes in management and ownership; and|
|●||inability to retain key employees of any acquired businesses.|
Accordingly, although there can be no assurance that we will undertake or successfully complete any transactions of the nature described above, and any transactions that we do complete could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report financial results or prevent fraud. If we identify a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting, our ability to meet our reporting obligations and the trading price of our stock could be negatively affected.
As described in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 14, 2020, in connection with our issuance of warrants in a private placement offering in February 2020, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting with regard to our failure to record an associated derivative liability on a timely basis. This deficiency did not result in the revision of any of our issued financial statements.
Effective internal controls are necessary to provide reliable financial reports and to assist in the effective prevention of fraud. Any inability to provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud could harm our business. We regularly review and update our internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies. In addition, we are required under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 to report annually on our internal control over financial reporting. Any system of internal controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Accordingly, a material weakness increases the risk that the financial information we report contains material errors.
To remediate this weakness, we devoted resources, and will continue to devote resources to the remediation and improvement of our internal control over financial reporting, in particular over handling of complex financial accounting issues. As the Company enters into transactions that involve complex accounting issues, it will consult with third party professionals with expertise in these matters as necessary to ensure appropriate accounting treatment for such transactions. Based on this assessment and our remediation plan, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting were not effective as of December 31, 2020.
If our financial statements are not accurate, investors may not have a complete understanding of our operations or may lose confidence in our reported financial information. Likewise, if our financial statements are not filed on a timely basis as required by the SEC and The Nasdaq Stock Market, we could face severe consequences from those authorities. In either case, it could result in a material adverse effect on our business or have a negative effect on the trading price of our common stock. Further, if we fail to remedy this deficiency (or any other future deficiencies) or maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, we could be subject to regulatory scrutiny, civil or criminal penalties or shareholder litigation. We can give no assurance that the measures we have taken and plan to take in the future will remediate the material weakness identified or that any additional material weaknesses will not arise in the future due to a failure to implement and maintain adequate internal control over financial reporting or circumvention of those controls.
Further, in the future, if we cannot conclude that we have effective internal control over our financial reporting, investors could lose confidence in the reliability of our financial statements, which could lead to a decline in our stock price. Failure to comply with reporting requirements could also subject us to sanctions and/or investigations by the SEC, The Nasdaq Stock Market or other regulatory authorities.
We may never be able to generate sufficient revenue from the commercialization of our product candidates to achieve and maintain profitability.
Our ability to operate profitably in the future will depend upon, among other items, our ability to (i) fully develop our product candidates, (ii) scale up our business and operational structure, (iii) obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates from the FDA, (iv) market and sell our product candidates to larger medical device companies, (v) successfully gain market acceptance of our product candidates, and (vi) obtain sufficient and on-time supply of components from our third-party suppliers. If our product candidates are never successfully commercialized, we may never receive a return on our investments in product development, regulatory compliance, manufacturing and quality assurance, which may cause us to fail to generate revenue and gain economies of scale from such investments.
We only utilize a few suppliers for porcine and bovine tissue for our two product candidates and the loss of a supplier could have an adverse impact on our business.
We rely on one domestic and one international third-party vendors to supply porcine and bovine tissue for our two product candidates. Our ability to supply our current and future product candidates, if approved, commercially depends, in part, on our ability to obtain this porcine and bovine tissue in accordance with our specifications and with regulatory requirements and in sufficient quantities to meet demand. Our ability to obtain porcine and bovine tissue may be affected by matters outside our control, including that these suppliers may cancel our arrangements on short notice or have disruptions to their operations.
If we are required to establish additional or replacement suppliers for the porcine and bovine tissue, it may not be accomplished quickly and our operations could be disrupted. Even if we are able to find replacement suppliers, the replacement suppliers may need to be qualified and may require additional regulatory authority approval, which could result in further delay. In the event of a supply disruption, our product inventories may be insufficient to supply our customers and the development of any future product candidates would be delayed, limited or prevented, which could have an adverse impact on our business.
We depend upon third-party suppliers for certain components of our product candidates, making us vulnerable to supply problems and price fluctuations, which could harm our business.
We rely on a number of third-party suppliers to provide certain components of our product candidates. We do not have long-term supply agreements with most of our suppliers, and, in many cases, we purchase goods on a purchase order basis. Our suppliers may encounter problems for a variety of reasons, including unanticipated demand from larger customers, failure to follow specific protocols and procedures, failure to comply with applicable regulations, equipment malfunction, quality or yield problems and environmental factors, any of which could delay or impede their ability to meet our demand. Our reliance on these third-party suppliers also subjects us to other risks that could harm our business, including:
|●||interruption of supply resulting from modifications to, or discontinuation of, a supplier’s operations;|
|●||delays in product shipments resulting from defects, reliability issues or changes in components from suppliers;|
|●||price fluctuations due to a lack of long-term supply arrangements for key components with our suppliers;|
|●||errors in manufacturing components, which could negatively impact the effectiveness or safety of our product candidates or cause delays in shipment of our product candidates;|
|●||discontinued production of components, which could significantly delay our production and sales and impair operating margins;|
|●||inability to obtain adequate supplies in a timely manner or on commercially reasonable terms;|
|●||difficulty locating and qualifying alternative suppliers, especially with respect to our sole-source supplies;|
|●||delays in production and sales caused by switching components, which may require product redesign and/or new regulatory submissions;|
|●||delays due to evaluation and testing of devices from alternative suppliers and corresponding regulatory qualifications;|
|●||non-timely delivery of components due to our suppliers supplying products for a range of customers;|
|●||the failure of our suppliers to comply with strictly enforced regulatory requirements, which could result in disruption of supply or increased expenses; and|
|●||inability of suppliers to fulfill orders and meet requirements due to financial hardships.|
In addition, there are a limited number of suppliers and third-party manufacturers that operate under the FDA’s Quality System Regulation, or QSR, requirements, maintain certifications from the International Organization for Standardization that are recognized as harmonized standards in the European Economic Area, or EEA, and that have the necessary expertise and capacity to supply components for our product candidates. As a result, it may be difficult for us to locate manufacturers for our anticipated future needs, and our anticipated growth may strain the ability of our current suppliers to deliver products, materials and components to us. If we are unable to arrange for third-party manufacturing of components for our product candidates, or to do so on commercially reasonable terms, we may not be able to complete development of, market and sell our current or new product candidates. Further, any supply interruption from our suppliers or failure to obtain additional suppliers for any of the components used in our product candidates would limit our ability to manufacture our product candidates. Failure to meet these commitments could result in legal action by our customers, loss of customers or harm to our ability to attract new customers, any of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth.
If we successfully develop our product candidates and are unable to sell or license them to larger medical device companies, we may have to commercialize our products on our own, in which case we would have to demonstrate the efficacy and financial viability of our products to doctors, hospitals, insurance companies, and other stakeholders.
There are multiple stakeholders that determine the success of a medical device, including doctors, hospitals, medical insurance companies, and others. Educating these stakeholders on the benefits of our product candidates will require a significant commitment by a marketing team and sales organization. Surgeons and hospitals may be slow to change their practices because of familiarity with existing devices and/or treatments, perceived risks arising from the use of new devices, lack of experience using new devices, lack of clinical data supporting the benefits of such devices or the cost of new devices. There may never be widespread adoption of our product candidates by surgeons and hospitals. In addition, medical insurance companies would need to understand the costs and benefits of our product candidates compared to the existing standards of care, if they are to provide reimbursement for the cost of our product candidates and the procedures to implant our product candidates. We may have difficulty and may never achieve the market acceptance that we need from doctors, hospitals, medical insurance companies and others that are necessary for a successful product.
If larger medical device companies purchase or license any of our product candidates and they are unable to convince hospital facilities to approve the use of our product candidates, we may be unable to generate a substantial royalty income from our products.
In the United States, in order for surgeons to use our product candidates, the hospital facilities where these surgeons treat patients will typically require that the product candidates receive approval from the facility’s VAC. VACs typically review the comparative effectiveness and cost of medical devices used in the facility. The makeup and evaluation processes for VACs vary considerably, and it can be a lengthy, costly and time-consuming effort to obtain approval by the relevant VAC. For example, even if the purchasers or licensees of our product candidates have an agreement with a hospital system for purchase of our products, in most cases, they must obtain VAC approval by each hospital within the system to sell at that particular hospital. Additionally, hospitals typically require separate VAC approval for each specialty in which our product is used, which may result in multiple VAC approval processes within the same hospital even if such product has already been approved for use by a different specialty group. VAC approval is often needed for each different product to be used by the surgeons in that specialty. In addition, hospital facilities and group purchasing organizations, or GPOs, which manage purchasing for multiple facilities, may also require the purchasers of licensees of our products to enter into a purchasing agreement and satisfy numerous elements of their administrative procurement process, which can also be a lengthy, costly and time-consuming effort. If our purchasers/licensees do not receive access to hospital facilities in a timely manner, or at all, via these VAC and purchasing contract processes, or otherwise, or if they are unable to secure contracts on commercially reasonable terms in a timely manner, or at all, their operating costs will increase, their sales may decrease and their operating results may be harmed.
Our long-term growth depends on our ability to develop and commercialize additional product candidates.
The medical device industry is highly competitive and subject to rapid change and technological advancements. Therefore, it is important to our business that we continue to enhance our product candidate offerings and introduce new product candidates. Developing new product candidates is expensive and time-consuming. Even if we are successful in developing additional product candidates, the success of any new product candidates or enhancements to existing product candidates will depend on several factors, including our ability to:
|●||properly identify and anticipate surgeon and patient needs;|
|●||develop and introduce new product candidates or enhancements in a timely manner;|
|●||develop an effective and dedicated sales and marketing team;|
|●||avoid infringing upon the intellectual property rights of third-parties;|
|●||demonstrate, if required, the safety and efficacy of new product candidates with data from preclinical studies and clinical trials;|
|●||obtain the necessary regulatory clearances or approvals for new product candidates or enhancements;|
|●||be fully FDA-compliant with marketing of new product candidates or modified product candidates;|
|●||provide adequate training to potential users of our product candidates; and|
|●||receive adequate coverage and reimbursement for procedures performed with our product candidates.|
If we are unsuccessful in developing and commercializing additional devices in other areas, our ability to increase our revenue may be impaired.
New technologies, techniques or products could emerge that might offer better combinations of price and performance than the products and services that we plan to offer. Existing markets for surgical devices are characterized by rapid technological change and innovation. It is critical to our success that we anticipate changes in technology and customer requirements and physician, hospital and healthcare provider practices. It is also important that we successfully introduce new, enhanced and competitive product candidates to meet our prospective customers’ needs on a timely and cost-effective basis. At the same time, however, we must carefully manage our introduction of new product candidates. If potential customers believe that such product candidates will offer enhanced features or be sold for a more attractive price, they may delay purchases until such product candidates are available. We may also continue to offer older obsolete products as we transition to new product candidates, and we may not have sufficient experience managing transitions. If we do not successfully innovate and introduce new technology into our anticipated product lines or successfully manage the transitions of our technology to new product offerings, our revenue, results of operations and business could be adversely impacted.
Our competitors may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, industry standards, distribution reach or customer requirements. We anticipate that we will face strong competition in the future as current or future competitors develop new or improved product candidates and as new companies enter the market with novel technologies.
If we are unable to produce an adequate supply of our product candidates for use in our current and planned clinical trials or for commercialization because of our limited manufacturing resources or our facility is damaged or becomes inoperable, our regulatory, development and commercialization efforts may be delayed.
Our manufacturing resources for our product candidates are limited. We currently manufacture our product candidates for our research and development purposes at our manufacturing facility in Irvine, California. If our existing manufacturing facility experiences a disruption, we would have no other means of manufacturing our product candidates until we are able to restore the manufacturing capability at our current facility or develop alternative manufacturing facilities. Additionally, any damage to or destruction of our facilities or our equipment, prolonged power outage or contamination at our facilities would significantly impair our ability to produce our product candidates and prepare our product candidates for clinical trials.
Additionally, in order to produce our product candidates in the quantities that will be required for commercialization, we will have to increase or “scale up” our production process over the current level of production. We may encounter difficulties in scaling up our production, including issues involving yields, controlling and anticipating costs, quality control and assurance, supply and shortages of qualified personnel. If our scaled-up production process is not efficient or results in a product that does not meet quality or other standards, we may be unable to meet market demand and our revenues, business and financial prospects would be adversely affected. Further, third parties with whom we may develop relationships may not have the ability to produce the quantities of the materials we may require for clinical trials or commercial sales or may be unable to do so at prices that allow us to price our products competitively.
Our facility and equipment would be costly to replace and could require substantial lead time to repair or replace. The facility may be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including earthquakes, flooding, fire, vandalism and power outages, which may render it difficult to operate our business for some period of time. While we have taken precautions to safeguard our facilities, any inability to operate our business during such periods could lead to the loss of customers or harm to our reputation. We also possess insurance for damage to our property and the disruption of our business, but this insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and this insurance may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.
We currently have no sales and marketing infrastructure and if we are unable to successfully sell and/or license our product candidates to larger medical device companies, we may need to commercialize our product candidates on our own, if approved, and may be unable to do so or may never generate sufficient revenue to achieve or sustain profitability.
In order to commercialize products that are approved by regulatory agencies, our current business model is to license or sell our product candidates to large medical device companies. We may not be able to enter into license or sale agreements on acceptable terms or at all, which would leave us unable to progress our current business plan. Our ability to reach a definitive agreement for collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of a number of factors. If we are unable to maintain or reach agreements with suitable collaborators on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all, we may have to curtail the development of our product candidates, reduce or delay development programs, delay potential commercialization of our product candidates or reduce the scope of any sales or marketing activities, or increase our expenditures and undertake development or commercialization activities at our own expense.
Moreover, even if we are able to maintain and/or enter into such collaborations, such collaborations may pose a number of risks, including the following:
|●||collaborators may not perform their obligations as expected;|
|●||disagreements with collaborators might cause delays or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our product candidates, might lead to additional responsibilities for us with respect to such devices, or might result in litigation or arbitration, any of which would be time-consuming and expensive;|
|●||collaborators could independently develop or be associated with products that compete directly or indirectly with our product candidates;|
|●||collaborators could have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to our arrangements with them, and thus we may have limited or no control over the sales, marketing and distribution activities;|
|●||should any of our product candidates achieve regulatory approval, a collaborator with marketing and distribution rights to our product candidates may not commit sufficient resources to the marketing and distribution of such product candidates;|
|●||collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our proprietary information in such a way as to invite litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential litigation;|
|●||collaborators may infringe the intellectual property rights of third parties, which may expose us to litigation and potential liability; and|
|●||collaborations may be terminated for the convenience of the collaborator and, if terminated, we could be required to either find alternative collaborators (which we may be unable to do) or raise additional capital to pursue further development or commercialization of our product candidates on our own.|
Our business would be materially or perhaps significantly harmed if any of the foregoing or similar risks comes to pass with respect to our key collaborations.
If it becomes necessary for us to establish a sales and marketing infrastructure, we may not be able to do so or we may not realize a positive return on this investment. We would have to compete with established and well-funded medical device companies to recruit, hire, train and retain sales and marketing personnel. Once hired, the training process is lengthy because it requires significant education of new sales representatives to achieve the level of clinical competency with our products expected by specialists. Upon completion of the training, we expect our sales representatives would typically require lead time in the field to grow their network of accounts and achieve the productivity levels we expect them to reach in any individual territory. If we are unable to attract, motivate, develop and retain a sufficient number of qualified sales personnel, or if our sales representatives do not achieve the productivity levels in the time period we expect them to reach, our revenue will not grow at the rate we expect and our business, results of operations and financial condition will suffer. Also, to the extent we hire sales personnel from our competitors, we may be required to wait until applicable non-competition provisions have expired before deploying such personnel in restricted territories or incur costs to relocate personnel outside of such territories. Any of these risks may adversely affect our ability to increase sales of our product candidates. If we are unable to expand our sales and marketing capabilities, we may not be able to effectively commercialize our product candidates, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities, limit sales of our existing product candidates and limit commercialization of any products that we may develop.
Our business exposes us to the risk of product liability claims that are inherent in the manufacturing, distribution, and sale of medical devices. This risk exists even if a device is cleared or approved for commercial sale by the FDA and manufactured in facilities licensed and regulated by the FDA or an applicable foreign regulatory authority. Manufacturing and marketing of our commercial devices and clinical testing of our product candidates under development, may expose us to product liability and other tort claims. Furthermore, surgeons may misuse our product candidates or use improper techniques if they are not adequately trained, potentially leading to injury and an increased risk of product liability. If our product candidates are misused or used with improper technique, we may become subject to costly litigation by our customers or their patients. Regardless of the merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in:
|●||significant litigation costs;|
|●||decreased demand for our product candidates and any product candidates that we may develop;|
|●||damage to our reputation;|
|●||withdrawal of clinical trial participants;|
|●||substantial monetary awards to trial participants, patients or other claimants;|
|●||loss of revenue; and|
|●||the inability to commercialize any product candidates that we may develop.|
Although we intend to maintain liability insurance, the coverage limits of our insurance policies may not be adequate, and one or more successful claims brought against us may have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. If we are unable to obtain insurance in the future at an acceptable cost or on acceptable terms with adequate coverage, we will be exposed to significant liabilities.
The loss of our executive officers or our inability to attract and retain qualified personnel may adversely affect our business, financial conditions and results of operations.
Our business and operations depend to a significant degree on the skills, efforts and continued services of our executive officers who have critical industry experience and relationships. Although we have entered into employment agreements with our executive officers, they may terminate their employment with us at any time. Accordingly, these executive officers may not remain associated with us. The efforts of these persons will be critical to us as we continue to develop our product candidates and business. We do not carry key person life insurance on any of our management, which would leave our company uncompensated for the loss of any of our executive officers.
Further, competition for highly-skilled and qualified personnel is intense. As such, our future viability and ability to achieve sales and profit will also depend on our ability to attract, train, retain and motivate highly qualified personnel in the diverse areas required for continuing our operations. If we were to lose the services one or more of our current executive officers or if we are unable to attract, hire and retain qualified personnel, we may experience difficulties in competing effectively, developing and commercializing our products and implementing our business strategies, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, operations and financial condition.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carry-forwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, we had available federal net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, of approximately $35.0 and $26.1 million. Pre-2018 federal NOLs carryovers of $12.0 million may be carried forward for twenty years and begin to expire in 2029. Under the Tax Act, post-2017 federal NOLs can be carried forward indefinitely and the annual limit of deduction equals 80% of taxable income. However, to the extent the Company utilizes its NOL carryforwards in the future, the tax years in which the attribute was generated may still be adjusted upon examination by the Internal Revenue Service or state tax authorities of the future period tax return in which the attribute is used. As of December 31, 2020, and 2019, the Company had net operating loss carryforwards for state income tax purposes of approximately $35.0 million and $26.1 million, respectively, which can be carried forward for twenty years and begin to expire in 2028.
As of December 31, 2020, we also had federal research and development tax credit carryforwards of approximately $0.2 million which begin to expire in 2027. In general, under Sections 382 and 383 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an “ownership change” (generally defined as a cumulative change in equity ownership by “5% shareholders” that exceeds 50 percentage points over a rolling three-year period) may be subject to limitations on its ability to utilize its NOLs and certain credit carryforwards to offset future taxable income and taxes. We are currently analyzing the tax impacts of any potential ownership changes on our federal NOLs and credit carryforwards. Future changes in our stock ownership, as well as other changes that may be outside of our control, could result in ownership changes. Our NOLs and credit carryforwards may also be limited under similar provisions of state law. We have recorded a full valuation allowance related to our NOLs and other deferred tax assets due to the uncertainty of the ultimate realization of the future tax benefits of such assets.
Risks Related to Regulatory Approval and Other Governmental Regulations
Our business and product candidates are subject to extensive governmental regulation and oversight, and our failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements could harm our business.
Our product candidates and operations are subject to extensive regulation in the United States by the FDA and by regulatory agencies in other countries where we anticipate conducting business activities. The FDA regulates the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, storage, record-keeping, promotion, marketing, sales, distribution and post-market support and reporting of medical devices in the United States. The regulations to which we are subject are complex and may become more stringent over time. Regulatory changes could result in restrictions on our ability to carry on or expand our operations, higher than anticipated costs or lower than anticipated sales.
In order to conduct a clinical investigation involving human subjects for the purpose of demonstrating the safety and effectiveness of a medical device, a company must, among other things, apply for and obtain Institutional Review Board, or IRB, approval of the proposed investigation. In addition, if the clinical study involves a “significant risk” (as defined by the FDA) to human health, the sponsor of the investigation must also submit and obtain FDA approval of an IDE application. Our product candidates are considered significant risk devices requiring IDE approval prior to investigational use. We may not be able to obtain FDA and/or IRB approval to undertake clinical trials in the United States for any new devices we intend to market in the United States in the future. If we obtain such approvals, we may not be able to conduct studies which comply with the IDE and other regulations governing clinical investigations or the data from any such trials may not support clearance or approval of the investigational device. Failure to obtain such approvals or to comply with such regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. It is uncertain whether clinical trials will meet desired endpoints, produce meaningful or useful data and be free of unexpected adverse effects, or that the FDA will accept the validity of foreign clinical study data, and such uncertainty could preclude or delay market clearance or authorizations resulting in significant financial costs and reduced revenue.
Our product candidates will be subject to extensive governmental regulation in foreign jurisdictions, such as the EEA, and our failure to comply with applicable requirements could cause our business, results of operations and financial condition to suffer.
In the EEA, our product candidates will need to comply with the Essential Requirements set forth in Medical Device Regulation. Compliance with these requirements is a prerequisite to be able to affix a CE mark to a product, without which a product cannot be marketed or sold in the EEA. To demonstrate compliance with the Essential Requirements and obtain the right to affix the CE mark to our product candidates, we must undergo a conformity assessment procedure, which varies according to the type of medical device and its classification. The conformity assessment procedure requires the involvement of a Notified Body, which is an organization designated by a competent authority of an EEA country to conduct conformity assessments. The Notified Body would audit and examine the Technical File and the quality system for the manufacture, design and final inspection of our products. The Notified Body issues a CE Certificate of Conformity following successful completion of a conformity assessment procedure and quality management system audit conducted in relation to the medical device and its manufacturer and their conformity with the Essential Requirements. This Certificate entitles the manufacturer to affix the CE mark to its medical products after having prepared and signed a related EC Declaration of Conformity.
As a general rule, demonstration of conformity of medical products and their manufacturers with the Essential Requirements must be based, among other things, on the evaluation of clinical data supporting the safety and performance of the products during normal conditions of use. Specifically, a manufacturer must demonstrate that the device achieves its intended performance during normal conditions of use and that the known and foreseeable risks, and any adverse events, are minimized and acceptable when weighed against the benefits of its intended performance, and that any claims made about the performance and safety of the device (e.g., product labeling and instructions for use) are supported by suitable evidence. This assessment must be based on clinical data, which can be obtained from (1) clinical studies conducted on the devices being assessed, (2) scientific literature from similar devices whose equivalence with the assessed device can be demonstrated or (3) both clinical studies and scientific literature. However, the pre-approval and post-market clinical requirements are much more rigorous. The conduct of clinical studies in the EEA is governed by detailed regulatory obligations. These may include the requirement of prior authorization by the competent authorities of the country in which the study takes place and the requirement to obtain a positive opinion from a competent Ethics Committee. This process can be expensive and time-consuming.
The FDA regulatory approval, clearance and license process is complex, time-consuming and unpredictable.
In the United States, our product candidates are expected to be regulated as medical devices. Before our medical device product candidates may be marketed in the United States, we must submit, and the FDA must approve a PMA application. For the PMA approval process, the FDA must determine that a proposed device is safe and effective for its intended use based, in part, on extensive data, including, but not limited to, technical, pre-clinical, clinical trial, manufacturing and labeling data. In addition, modifications to products that are approved through a PMA application generally require FDA approval. The time required to obtain approval, clearance or license by the FDA to market a new therapy is unpredictable but typically takes many years and depends upon many factors, including the substantial discretion of the FDA.
Our product candidates could fail to receive regulatory approval, clearance or license for many reasons, including the following:
|●||the FDA may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials or study endpoints;|
|●||we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA that our product candidates are safe and effective for their proposed indications or that our product candidates provide significant clinical benefits;|
|●||the results of our clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA for approval, clearance or license or may not support approval of a label that could command a price sufficient for us to be profitable;|
|●||the FDA may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;|
|●||the opportunity for bias in the clinical trials as a result of the open-label design may not be adequately handled and may cause our trial to fail;|
|●||our product candidates may be subject to an FDA advisory committee review, which may be requested at the sole discretion of the FDA, and which may result in unexpected delays or hurdles to approval;|
|●||the FDA may determine that the manufacturing processes at our facilities or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies are inadequate; and|
|●||the FDA may determine we cannot continue our clinical trials due to adverse patient reactions including patient deaths for reasons unrelated to our products; and|
|●||the approval, clearance or license policies or regulations of the FDA may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.|
Even if we were to obtain approval, clearance or license, the FDA may grant approval, clearance or license contingent on the performance of costly post-marketing clinical trials or may approve our product candidates with a label that does not include the labeling claims necessary or desirable for successful commercialization of our product candidates. Any of the above could materially harm our product candidates’ commercial prospects.
Even if our product candidates are approved by regulatory authorities, if we fail to comply with ongoing regulatory requirements, or if we experience unanticipated problems with our product candidates, our product candidates could be subject to restrictions or withdrawal from the market.
The manufacturing processes, post-approval clinical data and promotional activities of any product candidate for which we or our collaborators obtain marketing approval will be subject to continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other regulatory bodies. Even if regulatory approval of our product candidates is granted in the United States, the approval may be subject to limitations on the indicated uses for which the product candidates may be marketed or contain requirements for costly post-marketing testing and surveillance to monitor the safety or effectiveness of the product. Later discovery of previously unknown and unanticipated problems with our product candidates, including but not limited to unanticipated severity or frequency of adverse events, delays or problems with the manufacturer or manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in restrictions on such product candidates or manufacturing processes, withdrawal of the product candidates from the market, voluntary or mandatory recall, fines, suspension of regulatory approvals, product seizures, injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.
We are required to report certain malfunctions, deaths and serious injuries associated with our product once approved by regulatory bodies, which can result in voluntary corrective actions or agency enforcement actions.
All manufacturers marketing medical devices in the EEA are legally bound to report incidents involving devices they produce or sell to the regulatory agency, or competent authority, in whose jurisdiction the incident occurred. Under the EU Medical Devices Directive (Directive 93/42/EEC), an incident is defined as any malfunction or deterioration in the characteristics and/or performance of a device, as well as any inadequacy in the labeling or the instructions for use which, directly or indirectly, might lead to or might have led to the death of a patient, or user or of other persons or to a serious deterioration in their state of health. In addition, under the EU MDR, the manufacturers are obligated to publish Periodic Safety Update Report (annually for high risk devices) which will be uploaded to EUDAMED and require conformity assessment by Notified Bodies.
Malfunction or misuse of our product candidates could result in future voluntary corrective actions, such as recalls, including corrections (e.g., customer notifications), or agency action, such as inspection or enforcement actions. If malfunctions or misuse do occur, we may be unable to correct the malfunctions adequately or prevent further malfunctions or misuse, in which case we may need to cease manufacture and distribution of the affected products, initiate voluntary recalls, and redesign the products or the instructions for use for those products. Regulatory authorities may also take actions against us, such as ordering recalls, imposing fines, or seizing the affected products. Any corrective action, whether voluntary or involuntary, will require the dedication of our time and capital, may distract management from operating our business, and may harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Legislative or regulatory reforms in the United States or the EU may make it more difficult and costly for us to obtain regulatory clearances or approvals for our product candidates or to manufacture, market or distribute our product candidates after clearance or approval is obtained.
From time to time, legislation is drafted and introduced in the U.S. Congress that could significantly change the statutory provisions governing the regulation of medical devices or the reimbursement thereof. In addition, the FDA regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by the FDA in ways that may significantly affect our business and our product candidates. For example, as part of the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, or FDASIA, Congress reauthorized the Medical Device User Fee Amendments with various FDA performance goal commitments and enacted several “Medical Device Regulatory Improvements” and miscellaneous reforms, which are further intended to clarify and improve medical device regulation both pre- and post-clearance or approval. Any new statutes, regulations or revisions or reinterpretations of existing regulations may impose additional costs or lengthen review times of any future products or make it more difficult to manufacture, market or distribute our product candidates or future products. We cannot determine what effect changes in regulations, statutes, legal interpretation or policies, when and if promulgated, enacted or adopted may have on our business in the future. Such changes could, among other things, require:
|●||additional testing prior to obtaining clearance or approval;|
|●||changes to manufacturing methods;|
|●||recall, replacement or discontinuance of our systems or future products; or|
|●||additional record keeping.|
Any of these changes could require substantial time and cost and could harm our business and our financial results.
The highly publicized PIP scandal (use of non-medical grade silicone in breast implants) in 2010 led to publishing the first version of EU Medical Device Regulation (MDR) by European Commission in 2012. After 347 amendments by European Parliament in 2014, followed by various versions, the final version of the new EU Medical Device Regulation (MDR 2017/745) was published on May 5, 2017. The official entry to force of the MDR started on May 26, 2017 with the transition period of 3 years. The date of application of all existing and new medical devices under MDR is May 26, 2020; however, Notified Bodies are currently not accepted any new CE Mark applications under MDD (Medical Device Directives). All existing MDD CE certificates become void on May 26, 2024. EU requires that all existing and new medical device undergo assessment under MDR as if they are new product application.
The changes from EU Medical Device Directives (MDD) to Medical Device Regulation (MDR) are significant, with stricter clinical requirements and post-market surveillance, shift from pre-approval to Life-cycle approach, centralized EUDAMED database for public transparency (e.g. Periodic Safety Update Reports) and device registration, more device specific requirements (e.g. Common Specifications), legal liability for defective devices, etc. The QMS audit under MDR will be much more rigorous, including audits and assessment of suppliers and device testing. In addition, EU MDR introduces new stakeholders participating during the application review process, which will result in a longer and more burdensome assessment of our new products. The new stakeholders will include Medical Device Coordination Group (MDCG) established by Member States and Expert Panels appointed by European Union.
Further, under the FDA’s Medical Device Reporting or MDR regulations, we are required to report to the FDA any incident in which our product candidates may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or in which our product malfunctioned and, if the malfunction were to recur, would likely cause or contribute to death or serious injury. Any adverse event involving our products could result in future voluntary corrective actions, such as product actions or customer notifications, or regulatory authority actions, such as inspection, mandatory recall or other enforcement action. Repeated product malfunctions may result in a voluntary or involuntary product recall, which could divert managerial and financial resources, impair our ability to manufacture our product candidates in a cost-effective and timely manner and have an adverse effect on our reputation, financial condition and operating results.
Moreover, depending on the corrective action we take to redress a product’s deficiencies or defects, the FDA may require, or we may decide, that we will need to obtain new approvals or clearances for the device before we may market or distribute the corrected device. Seeking such approvals or clearances may delay our ability to replace the recalled devices in a timely manner. Moreover, if we do not adequately address problems associated with our product candidates, we may face additional regulatory enforcement action, including FDA warning letters, product seizure, injunctions, administrative penalties, withdrawals or clearances or approvals or civil or criminal fines. We may also be required to bear other costs or take other actions that may have a negative impact on our sales as well as face significant adverse publicity or regulatory consequences, which could harm our business, including our ability to market our product candidates in the future.
We are subject to federal, state and foreign healthcare laws and regulations, and a finding of failure to comply with such laws and regulations could have a material and adverse effect on our business.
Our operations are, and will continue to be, directly and indirectly affected by various federal, state or foreign healthcare laws, including, but not limited to, those described below. These laws include:
|●||the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, in exchange for or to induce either the referral of an individual for, or the purchase, order or recommendation of, any good or service for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute or specific intent to violate it to have committed a violation. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the False Claims Act. Violations of the federal Anti-kickback Statute may result in substantial civil or criminal penalties, including criminal fines of up to $25,000, imprisonment of up to five years, civil penalties under the Civil Monetary Penalties Law of up to $50,000 for each violation, plus three times the remuneration involved, civil penalties under the federal False Claims Act of up to $11,000 for each claim submitted, plus three times the amounts paid for such claims and exclusion from participation in the Medicare and Medicaid programs;|
|●||the federal False Claims Act, which prohibits, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid or other federal third-party payors that are false or fraudulent. Suits filed under the False Claims Act, known as “qui tam” actions, can be brought by any individual on behalf of the government and such individuals, commonly known as “whistleblowers,” may share in any amounts paid by the entity to the government in fines or settlement. When an entity is determined to have violated the False Claims Act, the government may impose penalties of not less than $5,500 and not more than $11,000, plus three times the amount of the damages that the government sustains due to the submission of a false claim and exclude the entity from participation in Medicare, Medicaid and other federal healthcare programs;|
|●||the federal Civil Monetary Penalties Law, which prohibits, among other things, offering or transferring remuneration to a federal healthcare beneficiary that a person knows or should know is likely to influence the beneficiary’s decision to order or receive items or services reimbursable by the government from a particular provider or supplier;|
|●||HIPAA, as amended by the HITECH Act, and their respective implementing regulations, which governs the conduct of certain electronic healthcare transactions and protects the security and privacy of protected health information. Failure to comply with the HIPAA privacy and security standards can result in civil monetary penalties up to $50,000 per violation, not to exceed $1.5 million per calendar year for non-compliance of an identical provision, and, in certain circumstances, criminal penalties with fines up to $250,000 per violation and/or imprisonment. State attorneys general can bring a civil action to enjoin a HIPAA violation or to obtain statutory damages up to $25,000 per violation on behalf of residents of his or her state. HIPAA also imposes criminal penalties for fraud against any healthcare benefit program and for obtaining money or property from a healthcare benefit program through false pretenses and provides for broad prosecutorial subpoena authority and authorizes certain property forfeiture upon conviction of a federal healthcare offense. Significantly, the HIPAA provisions apply not only to federal programs, but also to private health benefit programs. HIPAA also broadened the authority of the U.S. Office of Inspector General of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to exclude participants from federal healthcare programs;|
|●||the federal physician sunshine requirements under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or PPACA, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies to report annually to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians, which is defined broadly to include other healthcare providers and teaching hospitals and ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members. Manufacturers are required to submit reports to CMS by the 90th day of each calendar year. Failure to submit the required information may result in civil monetary penalties up to an aggregate of $150,000 per year (and up to an aggregate of $1 million per year for “knowing failures”) for all payments, transfers of value or ownership or investment interests not reported in an annual submission, and may result in liability under other federal laws or regulations; and|
|●||analogous state and foreign law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third- party payor, including commercial insurers; state laws that require device companies to comply with the industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the applicable compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers and other potential referral sources; state laws that require device manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures; and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts. Any failure by us to ensure that our employees and agents comply with applicable state and foreign laws and regulations could result in substantial penalties or restrictions on our ability to conduct business in those jurisdictions, and our results of operations and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.|
The risk of our being found in violation of these laws is increased by the fact that many of them have not been fully interpreted by the regulatory authorities or the courts, and their provisions are open to a variety of interpretations. Because of the breadth of these laws and the narrowness of the statutory exceptions and safe harbors available under such laws, it is possible that some of our business activities, including our relationships with surgeons and other healthcare providers, some of whom recommend, purchase and/or prescribe our product candidates, and our distributors, could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws.
If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us now or in the future, we may be subject to penalties, including civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, exclusion from governmental health care programs and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our financial results. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business.
Regulatory healthcare reform measures and other legislative changes may have a material and adverse effect on business, results of operations and financial condition.
FDA regulations and guidance are often revised or reinterpreted by FDA and such actions may significantly affect our business and our product candidates. Any new regulations or revisions or reinterpretations of existing regulations may impose additional costs or lengthen review times for our product candidates. Delays in receipt of, or failure to receive, regulatory approvals for our product candidates would have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In March 2010, the PPACA was signed into law, which includes a deductible 2.3% excise tax on any entity that manufactures or imports medical devices offered for sale in the United States, with limited exceptions, that began on January 1, 2013. Although a two year moratorium was placed on the medical device excise tax in 2016 and extended through December 31, 2019, it was permanently repealed on December 20, 2019. Other elements of the PPACA, including comparative effectiveness research, an independent payment advisory board and payment system reforms, including shared savings pilots and other provisions, may significantly affect the payment for, and the availability of, healthcare services and result in fundamental changes to federal healthcare reimbursement programs, any of which may materially affect numerous aspects of our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, other legislative changes have been proposed and adopted in the United States since the PPACA was enacted. On August 2, 2011, the Budget Control Act of 2011 created measures for spending reductions by Congress. A Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, tasked with recommending a targeted deficit reduction of at least $1.2 trillion for the years 2013 through 2021, was unable to reach required goals, thereby triggering the legislation’s automatic reduction to several government programs. This includes aggregate reductions of Medicare payments to providers up to 2% per fiscal year, which went into effect on April 1, 2013, and will remain in effect through 2024 unless additional Congressional action is taken. On January 2, 2013, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, or the ATRA, was signed into law which further reduced Medicare payments to certain providers, including hospitals.
We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future, any of which could limit the amounts that federal and state governments will pay for healthcare products and services, which could result in reduced demand for our product candidates, if approved, and services or additional pricing pressures.
Our relationships with physician consultants, owners and investors could be subject to additional scrutiny from regulatory enforcement authorities and could subject us to possible administrative, civil or criminal sanctions.
Federal and state laws and regulations impose restrictions on our relationships with physicians who are consultants, owners and investors. We may enter into consulting agreements, license agreements and other agreements with physicians in which we provide cash as compensation. We have or may have other written and oral arrangements with physicians, including for research and development grants and for other purposes as well.
We could be adversely affected if regulatory agencies were to interpret our financial relationships with these physicians, who may be in a position to influence the ordering of and use of our product candidates for which governmental reimbursement may be available, as being in violation of applicable laws. If our relationships with physicians are found to be in violation of the laws and regulations that apply to us, we may be required to restructure the arrangements and could be subject to administrative, civil and criminal penalties, including exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, imprisonment, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could negatively impact our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.
Our company and many of our collaborators and potential collaborators are required to comply with the Federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and implementing regulation affecting the transmission, security and privacy of health information, and failure to comply could result in significant penalties.
Numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, or the HITECH Act, govern the collection, dissemination, security, use and confidentiality of health information that identifies specific patients. HIPAA and the HITECH Act require our surgeon and hospital customers and potential customers to comply with certain standards for the use and disclosure of health information within their companies and with third parties. The Privacy Standards and Security Standards under HIPAA establish a set of standards for the protection of individually identifiable health information by health plans, health care clearinghouses and certain health care providers, referred to as Covered Entities, and the business associates with whom Covered Entities enter into service relationships pursuant to which individually identifiable health information may be exchanged. Notably, whereas HIPAA previously directly regulated only these Covered Entities, the HITECH Act makes certain of HIPAA’s privacy and security standards also directly applicable to Covered Entities’ business associates. As a result, both Covered Entities and business associates are now subject to significant civil and criminal penalties for failure to comply with Privacy Standards and Security Standards.
HIPAA requires Covered Entities (like many of our customers and potential customers) and business associates to develop and maintain policies and procedures with respect to protected health information that is used or disclosed, including the adoption of administrative, physical and technical safeguards to protect such information. The HITECH Act expands the notification requirement for breaches of patient-identifiable health information, restricts certain disclosures and sales of patient-identifiable health information and provides for civil monetary penalties for HIPAA violations. The HITECH Act also increased the civil and criminal penalties that may be imposed against Covered Entities and business associates and gave state attorneys general new authority to file civil actions for damages or injunctions in federal courts to enforce the federal HIPAA laws and seek attorney fees and costs associated with pursuing federal civil actions. Additionally, certain states have adopted comparable privacy and security laws and regulations, some of which may be more stringent than HIPAA.
Any new legislation or regulation in the area of privacy and security of personal information, including personal health information, could also adversely affect our business operations. If we do not comply with existing or new applicable federal or state laws and regulations related to patient health information, we could be subject to criminal or civil sanctions and any resulting liability could adversely affect our financial condition.
In addition, countries around the world have passed or are considering legislation that would impose data breach notification requirements and/or require that companies adopt specific data security requirements. If we experience a data breach that triggers one or more of these laws, we may be subject to breach notification obligations, civil liability and litigation, all of which could also generate negative publicity and have a negative impact on our business.
We are currently, and in the future may be, subject to various governmental regulations related to the manufacturing of our product candidates, and we may incur significant expenses to comply with, experience delays in our product commercialization as a result of, and be subject to material sanctions if we or our contract manufacturers violate these regulations.
Our manufacturing processes and facility are required to comply with the FDA’s QSR, which covers the procedures and documentation of the design, testing, production, control, quality assurance, labeling, packaging, sterilization, storage, and shipping of our product candidates. Although we believe we are compliant with the QSRs, the FDA enforces the QSR through periodic announced or unannounced inspections of manufacturing facilities. We have been, and anticipate in the future being, subject to such inspections, as well as to inspections by other federal and state regulatory agencies. We are required to register our manufacturing facility with the FDA and list all devices that are manufactured. We also operate an International Organization for Standards, or ISO, 13485 certified facility and annual audits are required to maintain that certification. The suppliers of our components are also required to comply with the QSR and are subject to inspections. We have limited ability to ensure that any such third-party manufacturers will take the necessary steps to comply with applicable regulations, which could cause delays in the delivery of our products. Failure to comply with applicable FDA requirements, or later discovery of previously unknown problems with our products or manufacturing processes, including our failure or the failure of one of our third-party manufacturers to take satisfactory corrective action in response to an adverse QSR inspection, can result in, among other things:
|●||administrative or judicially imposed sanctions;|
|●||injunctions or the imposition of civil penalties;|
|●||recall or seizure of our product candidates;|
|●||total or partial suspension of production or distribution;|
|●||the FDA’s refusal to grant future clearance or pre-market approval for our product candidates;|
|●||withdrawal or suspension of marketing clearances or approvals;|
|●||refusal to permit the import or export of our product candidates; and|
|●||criminal prosecution of us or our employees.|
Any of these actions, in combination or alone, could prevent us from marketing, distributing, or selling our products and would likely harm our business. In addition, a product defect or regulatory violation could lead to a government-mandated or voluntary recall by us. Regulatory agencies in other countries have similar authority to recall devices because of material deficiencies or defects in design or manufacture that could endanger health. Any recall would divert management attention and financial resources, could expose us to product liability or other claims, including contractual claims from parties to whom we sold products and harm our reputation with customers. A recall involving any of our product candidates would be particularly harmful to our business and financial results and, even if we remedied a particular problem, would have a lasting negative effect on our reputation and demand for our products.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
If we are unable to adequately protect our proprietary technology or maintain issued patents that are sufficient to protect our product candidates, others could compete against us more directly, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success may depend in part on our success in obtaining and maintaining issued patents and other intellectual property rights in the United States and elsewhere and protecting our proprietary technologies. If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property and proprietary technologies, competitors may be able to use our technologies and erode or negate any competitive advantage we may have, which could harm our business and ability to achieve profitability.
We have filed patent applications for our VenoValve product and Implantable Vein Frame Two product with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office but there are no assurances that patents will be issued. We also are working on new developments for our CoreoGraft product and expect to be filing for patent protection on that product as well.
Our patents may not have, or our pending patent applications that mature into issued patents may not include, claims with a scope sufficient to protect our products, any additional features we develop for our current products or any new products. Other parties may have developed technologies that may be related or competitive to our products, may have filed or may file patent applications and may have received or may receive patents that overlap or conflict with our patent applications, either by claiming the same methods or devices or by claiming subject matter that could dominate our patent position. The patent positions of medical device companies, including our patent position, may involve complex legal and factual questions, and, therefore, the scope, validity and enforceability of any patent claims that we may obtain cannot be predicted with certainty. Patents, if issued, may be challenged, deemed unenforceable, invalidated or circumvented. Proceedings challenging our patents could result in either loss of the patent or denial of the patent application or loss or reduction in the scope of one or more of the claims of the patent or patent application. In addition, such proceedings may be costly. Thus, any patents that we may own may not provide any protection against competitors. Furthermore, an adverse decision in an interference proceeding can result in a third party receiving the patent right sought by us, which in turn could affect our ability to commercialize our implant systems.
Furthermore, though an issued patent is presumed valid and enforceable, its issuance is not conclusive as to its validity or its enforceability and it may not provide us with adequate proprietary protection or competitive advantages against competitors with similar products. Competitors may also be able to design around our patents. Other parties may develop and obtain patent protection for more effective technologies, designs or methods. We may not be able to prevent the unauthorized disclosure or use of our technical knowledge or trade secrets by consultants, suppliers, vendors, former employees and current employees. The laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States, and we may encounter significant problems in protecting our proprietary rights in these countries. If any of these developments were to occur, they each could have a negative impact on our business and competitive position.
Our ability to enforce our patent rights depends on our ability to detect infringement. It may be difficult to detect infringers who do not advertise the components that are used in their products. Moreover, it may be difficult or impossible to obtain evidence of infringement in a competitor’s or potential competitor’s product. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded if we were to prevail may not be commercially meaningful.
In addition, proceedings to enforce or defend our patents could put our patents at risk of being invalidated, held unenforceable or interpreted narrowly. Such proceedings could also provoke third parties to assert claims against us, including that some or all of the claims in one or more of our patents are invalid or otherwise unenforceable. If any of our patents covering our products are invalidated or found unenforceable, our financial position and results of operations could be negatively impacted. In addition, if a court found that valid, enforceable patents held by third parties covered one or more of our products, our financial position and results of operations could be harmed.
We rely upon unpatented trade secrets, unpatented know-how and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position, which we will seek to protect, in part, by entering into confidentiality agreements with our employees and our collaborators and consultants. We also have agreements with our employees and selected consultants that obligate them to assign their inventions to us and have non-compete agreements with some, but not all, of our consultants. It is possible that technology relevant to our business will be independently developed by a person that is not a party to such an agreement. Furthermore, if the employees and consultants who are parties to these agreements breach or violate the terms of these agreements, we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach or violation, and we could lose our trade secrets through such breaches or violations. Further, our trade secrets could otherwise become known or be independently discovered by our competitors.
Obtaining and maintaining our patent protection depends on compliance with various procedures, document submission requirements, fee payments and other requirements imposed by governmental patent agencies, and our patent protection could be reduced or eliminated for non-compliance with these requirements.
The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, or USPTO, and various foreign governmental patent agencies require compliance with a number of procedural, documentary, fee payments such as maintenance and annuity fee payments and other provisions during the patent procurement process as well as over the life span of an issued patent. There are situations in which noncompliance can result in abandonment or lapse of a patent or patent application, resulting in partial or complete loss of patent rights in the relevant jurisdiction. In such an event, competitors might be able to enter the market earlier than would otherwise have been the case.
We may incur substantial costs as a result of litigation or other proceedings relating to patent and other intellectual property rights and we may be unable to protect our rights to, or use, our technology.
Our success will depend in part on our ability to operate without infringing the intellectual property and proprietary rights of third parties. Our business, product candidates and methods could infringe the patents or other intellectual property rights of third parties.
The medical device industry is characterized by frequent and extensive litigation regarding patents and other intellectual property rights. Many medical device companies with substantially greater resources than us have employed intellectual property litigation as a way to gain a competitive advantage. We may become involved in litigation, interference proceedings, oppositions, reexamination, protest or other potentially adverse intellectual property proceedings as a result of alleged infringement by us of the rights of others or as a result of priority of invention disputes with third parties, either in the United States or internationally. We may also become a party to patent infringement claims and litigation or interference proceedings declared by the USPTO to determine the priority of inventions. Third parties may also challenge the validity of any of our issued patents and we may initiate proceedings to enforce our patent rights and prevent others from infringing on our intellectual property rights. Any claims relating to the infringement of third-party proprietary rights or proprietary determinations, even if not meritorious, could result in costly litigation, lengthy governmental proceedings, diversion of our management’s attention and resources, or entrance into royalty or license agreements that are not advantageous to us. In any of these circumstances, we may need to spend significant amounts of money, time and effort defending our position. Some of our competitors may be able to sustain the costs of complex patent litigation more effectively than we can because they have substantially greater resources. In addition, any uncertainties resulting from the initiation and continuation of any litigation could have a material adverse effect on our ability to raise the funds necessary to continue our operations.
Even if we are successful in these proceedings, we may incur substantial costs and divert management time and attention in pursuing these proceedings, which could have a material and adverse effect on us. If we are unable to avoid infringing the intellectual property rights of others, we may be required to seek a license, defend an infringement action or challenge the validity of intellectual property in court or redesign our product candidates.
Risks Related to Ownership of Our Securities
The trading price of our securities is likely to be volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a variety of factors.
The trading price of our securities is likely to be volatile and could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a variety of factors, which include:
|●||whether we achieve our anticipated corporate objectives;|
|●||actual or anticipated fluctuations in our financial condition and operating results;|
|●||changes in financial or operational estimates or projections;|
|●||the development status of our product candidates and when our product candidates receive regulatory approval if at all;|
|●||our execution of our sales and marketing, manufacturing and other aspects of our business plan;|
|●||performance of third parties on whom we rely to manufacture our product candidate components and product candidates, including their ability to comply with regulatory requirements;|
|●||the results of our preclinical studies and clinical trials;|
|●||results of operations that vary from those of our competitors and the expectations of securities analysts and investors;|
|●||our announcement of significant contracts, acquisitions or capital commitments;|
|●||announcements by our competitors of competing products or other initiatives;|
|●||announcements by third parties of significant claims or proceedings against us;|
|●||regulatory and reimbursement developments in the United States and internationally;|
|●||future sales of our common stock;|
|●||product liability claims;|
|●||healthcare reform measures in the United States;|
|●||additions or departures of key personnel; and|
|●||general economic or political conditions in the United States or elsewhere.|
In addition, the stock market in general, and the stock of medical device companies like ours, in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the issuer. These market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance.
We have issued a significant number of options and warrants and may continue to do so in the future. The vesting and, if applicable, exercise of these securities and the sale of the shares of common stock issuable thereunder may dilute your percentage ownership interest and may also result in downward pressure on the price of our common stock.
As of the date of this Annual Report, we have issued and outstanding options to purchase 2,128,181 shares of our common stock with a weighted average exercise price of $10.51 (including 1,888,000 options that may only become exercisable following receipt by the Company of stockholder approval to increase the size of the 2016 Plan sufficiently to permit the exercise in full of such stock options under the 2016 Plan (if the Company’s stockholders do not approve an increase in the size of the 2016 Plan, the options will be void)), 4,942 restricted stock units subject to vesting, and warrants to purchase 4,405,659 shares of our common stock with a weighted average exercise price of $12.39. Further, we have 342,013 shares available for issuance under our Amended and Restated 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan, the number of shares available under the plan will be increased January 1st (and each January 1st thereafter) by an amount equal to 3% of the total issued and outstanding shares of our common stock as of such anniversary (or such lesser number of shares as may be approved by our Board of Directors). Because the market for our common stock is thinly traded, the sales and/or the perception that those sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Furthermore, the mere existence of a significant number of shares of common stock issuable upon vesting and, if applicable, exercise of these securities may be perceived by the market as having a potential dilutive effect, which could lead to a decrease in the price of our common stock.
We will need to raise additional capital to meet our business requirements in the future, and such capital raising may be costly or difficult to obtain and can be expected to dilute current stockholders’ ownership interests.
Notwithstanding that we have raised approximately $50,400,000 in aggregate net proceeds since January 1, 2020, we will need to raise additional capital in the future. Such additional capital may not be available on reasonable terms or at all. Any future issuance of our equity or equity-backed securities may dilute then-current stockholders’ ownership percentages. If we are unable to obtain required additional capital, we may have to curtail our growth plans or cut back on existing business.
We may incur substantial costs in pursuing future capital financing, including investment banking fees, legal fees, accounting fees, securities law compliance fees, printing and distribution expenses and other costs. We may also be required to recognize non-cash expenses in connection with certain securities we may issue, such as convertible notes, restricted stock, stock options and warrants, which may adversely impact our financial condition.
Future sales or issuances of substantial amounts of our common stock could result in significant dilution.
Any future issuance of our equity or equity-backed securities, including, potentially, the issuance of securities in connection with a merger transaction, may dilute then-current stockholders’ ownership percentages and could also result in a decrease in the fair market value of our equity securities, because our assets would be owned by a larger pool of outstanding equity. As stated above, we intend to conduct additional rounds of financing in the future and we may need to raise additional capital through public or private offerings of our common stock or other securities that are convertible into or exercisable for our common stock. We may also issue securities in connection with hiring or retaining employees and consultants (including stock options issued under an equity incentive plan), as payment to providers of goods and services, in connection with future acquisitions or for other business purposes. Our Board of Directors may at any time authorize the issuance of additional common stock without stockholder approval, subject only to the total number of authorized shares of common stock set forth in our articles of incorporation. The terms of equity securities issued by us in future transactions may be more favorable to new investors, and may include dividend and/or liquidation preferences, superior voting rights and the issuance of warrants or other derivative securities, which may have a further dilutive effect. Also, the future issuance of any such additional shares of common stock or other securities may create downward pressure on the trading price of the common stock. There can be no assurance that any such future issuances will not be at a price (or exercise prices) below the price at which shares of the common stock are then traded on Nasdaq or other then-applicable over-the-counter quotation system or exchange.
Our failure to meet the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq could result in a de-listing of our Common Stock.
While we are currently in compliance with Nasdaq’s continued listing requirements, we have received deficiency notices in the past and there is no guarantee that we will be able to continue to meet the continued listing requirements of Nasdaq. In the event we are unable to do so, our securities may be delisted from The Nasdaq Stock Market. Such a delisting would likely have a negative effect on the price of our Common Stock and would impair your ability to sell or purchase our Common Stock when you wish to do so. In the event of a delisting, we would expect to take actions to restore our compliance with Nasdaq Marketplace Rules, but our common stock may not be listed again, stabilize the market price or improve the liquidity of our common stock, prevent our common stock from dropping below the Nasdaq minimum bid price requirement or prevent future non-compliance with the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules.
We are an “emerging growth company” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. We may remain an emerging growth company until as late as December 2023 (the fiscal year-end following the fifth anniversary of the completion of our initial public offering), though we may cease to be an emerging growth company earlier under certain circumstances, including (1) if the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of any June 30, in which case we would cease to be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31, or (2) if our gross revenue exceeds $1.07 billion in any fiscal year. Emerging growth companies may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies, including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. Investors could find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.
In addition, Section 102 of the JOBS Act also provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, for complying with new or revised accounting standards. An emerging growth company can therefore delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.
Provisions of our charter documents or Delaware law could delay or prevent an acquisition of us, even if the acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders, which could make it more difficult for you to change management.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws may discourage, delay or prevent a merger, acquisition or other change in control that stockholders may consider favorable, including transactions in which stockholders might otherwise receive a premium for their shares. In addition, these provisions may frustrate or prevent any attempt by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management by making it more difficult to replace or remove our board of directors. These provisions include, but are not limited to:
|●||a classified board of directors so that not all directors are elected at one time;|
|●||a prohibition on stockholder action through written consent;|
|●||no cumulative voting in the election of directors;|
|●||the exclusive right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death or removal of a director;|
|●||a requirement that special meetings of the stockholders may be called only by our chairman of the board, chief executive officer or president, or by a resolution adopted by a majority of our board of directors;|
|●||an advance notice requirement for stockholder proposals and nominations;|
|●||the authority of our board of directors to issue preferred stock with such terms as our board of directors may determine; and|
|●||a requirement of approval of not less than 66 2/3% of all outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote to amend any bylaws by stockholder action, or to amend specific provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation.|
In addition, the Delaware General Corporate Law, or DGCL, prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a business combination with an interested stockholder, generally a person who, together with its affiliates, owns, or within the last three years has owned, 15% or more of our voting stock, for a period of three years after the date of the transaction in which the person became an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Accordingly, the DGCL may discourage, delay or prevent a change in control of our company.
Furthermore, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation specifies that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for most legal actions involving actions brought against us by stockholders. We believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of the DGCL by chancellors particularly experienced in resolving corporate disputes, efficient administration of cases on a more expedited schedule relative to other forums and protection against the burdens of multi-forum litigation. However, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers.
We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future and, as such, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. In addition, and any future loan arrangements we enter into may contain, terms prohibiting or limiting the amount of dividends that may be declared or paid on our common stock. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.
|ITEM 1B.||Unresolved Staff Comments|
|ITEM 2.||Properties and Facilities|
We lease a 14,507 square foot manufacturing facility in Irvine, California. We renewed our lease on September 20, 2017, effective October 1, 2017, for five years with an option to extend the lease for an additional 60-month term at the end of lease term. Our facility is designed expressly for the manufacture of biologic vascular grafts and is equipped for research and development, prototype fabrication, cGMP manufacturing and shipping for Class III medical devices, including biologic cardiovascular devices. We believe that our facilities are sufficient for the near future as there is present capacity to manufacture up to 24,000 venous valves per year to meet potential market demands.
|ITEM 3.||Legal Proceedings|
From time to time, we may be subject to litigation and arbitration claims incidental to its business. Such claims may not be covered by our insurance coverage, and even if they are, if claims against us are successful, they may exceed the limits of applicable insurance coverage.
On July 9, 2020, the Company was served with a civil complaint filed in the Superior Court for the State of California, County of Orange by a former employee, Robert Rankin, who resigned his employment on or about March 30, 2020. The case is entitled Rankin v. Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc. et al., Case No. 30-2020-01146555-CU-WR-CJC and was filed on May 27, 2020. The complaint asserts several causes of action, including a cause of action for failure to timely pay Mr. Rankin’s accrued and unused vacation and three months’ severance under his July 16, 2018 employment agreement with the Company. Mr. Rankin alleges that he was forced to resign, however, we believe that he did not give the Company notice or an opportunity to cure the allegations. The complaint seeks, inter alia, back pay, unpaid wages, compensatory damages, punitive damages, attorneys’ fees, and costs. On September 3, 2020 the Company and its Chief Executive Officer were served with a second complaint filed in the Superior Court for the State of California, County of Orange by Mr. Rankin. The case is entitled Rankin v. Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc. et al., Case No. 30-2020-01157857 and was filed on August 31, 2020. The complaint asserts several causes of action, including defamation, unlawful labor code violations, sex-based discrimination, unfair competition, and seeks damages for lost wages, emotional and mental distress, consequential damages, punitive damages and attorney’s fees and costs. The Company intends to vigorously defend the claims, investigate the allegations, and assert counterclaims. Mr. Rankin resigned as the Company’s Chief Financial Officer, Secretary and Treasurer on March 30, 2020.
|ITEM 4.||Mine and Safety Disclosure|
|ITEM 5.||Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities|
Our common stock began trading on Nasdaq under the symbol “HJLI” on May 31, 2018. Our warrants issued as part of the units consisting of one share of common stock and one warrant to purchase commons stock sold to the public through the initial public offering began trading on Nasdaq under the symbol “HJLIW” on May 31, 2018.
Holders of Record
On March 25, 2021, the closing price per share of our common stock and listed warrants were $6.68 and $0.35, respectively as reported on The Nasdaq Capital Market. We had approximately 79 stockholders of record and 1 listed warrant holder of record as of March 25, 2021. On March 25, 2021 there were 8,503,636 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding and 69,000 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of listed warrants issued and outstanding. In addition, we believe that a significant number of beneficial owners of our common stock and listed warrants hold their shares in street name.
Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plan
The following information is as of December 31, 2020.
exercise price of
|Equity compensation plans approved by security holders||215,631||$||31.48||370,725|
|Equity compensation plans not approved by security holders||-||-||-|
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our capital stock. We do not anticipate paying cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to support our operations and finance the growth and development of our business. Any future determination related to our dividend policy will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon, among other factors, our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements, contractual restrictions, business prospects, the requirements of current or then-existing debt instruments and other factors our board of directors may deem relevant.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
Repurchases of Equity Securities by Our Company
|ITEM 6.||Selected Financial Data|
As a “smaller reporting company” as defined by Item 10 of Regulation S-K, the Company is not required to provide this information.
|ITEM 7.||Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations|
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our other Securities and Exchange Commission filings. The following discussion may contain predictions, estimates, and other forward-looking statements that involve a number of risks and uncertainties, including those discussed under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These risks could cause our actual results to differ materially from any future performance suggested below.
Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc. is a medical device company developing tissue based solutions that are designed to be life sustaining or life enhancing for patients with cardiovascular disease, and peripheral arterial and venous disease. The Company’s products are being developed to address large unmet medical needs by either offering treatments where none currently exist or by substantially increasing the current standards of care. Our products which we are developing include: the VenoValve®, a porcine based device to be surgically implanted in the deep venous system of the leg to treat a debilitating condition called chronic venous insufficiency (“CVI”); and the CoreoGraft®, a bovine based conduit to be used to revascularize the heart during coronary artery bypass graft (“CABG”) surgeries. Both of these products are currently being developed for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”). Our current senior management team has been affiliated with more than 50 products that have received FDA approval or CE marking. We currently lease a 14,507 sq. ft. manufacturing facility in Irvine, California, where we manufacture products for our clinical trials and which has previously been FDA certified for commercial manufacturing of product.
Each of our products will be required to successfully complete significant clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product before it will be able to be approved by the FDA.
Results of Operations
Comparison of the year ended December 31, 2020 to the year ended December 31, 2019
We reported net losses of $9,135,486 and $7,625,397 for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, representing an increase in net loss of $1,510,089 or 20%, resulting from, as described in further detail below, an increase in operating expenses of $2,017,393, a loss on other expenses of $215,906, a decrease of $46,176 in interest income, net, and a decrease of $31,243 in royalty income, partially offset by a decrease in the loss on impairment of intangible assets of $588,822 and an increase in the gain on the change in fair value of derivative liabilities of $211,807.
There were no revenues earned during the year ended December 31, 2020. Revenue during the year ended December 31, 2019 was $31,243 as a result of royalty income. Royalty income was earned in 2019 pursuant to the terms of our March 2016 asset sale agreement with LeMaitre Vascular, Inc., which three-year term ended on March 18, 2019. Since March 18, 2019, we no longer generate royalty revenue and we do not expect to generate any other royalty revenues until one of our product candidates secure regulatory approval and is licensed or otherwise marketed, if ever.
As a developmental stage company, our revenue, if any, is expected to be diminutive and dependent on our ability to commercialize our product candidates.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
For the year ended December 31, 2020, selling, general and administrative expenses were flat, showing a small decrease of $28,736 or 1%, to $4,882,877 from $4,911,613 for the year ended December 31, 2019. This is the net of increases in legal expense of $223,000 primarily related to the contemplated merger with Catheter Precision that the Company did not move forward with, increased compensation expense of $191,000 due to personnel changes and a management bonus in 2020, and an increase in insurance expense of $187,000 primarily from the Company’s D&O insurance, offset by a decrease in share based compensation of $246,000 as 2019 included expenses related to equity granted in a settlement with a consultant, a $181,000 decrease in travel expenses due to pandemic related travel restrictions in 2020, a $94,000 decrease in outside services, and an $109,000 decrease in other office expense due to fewer personnel in the office during portions of the 2020 year.
Research and Development Expenses
For the year ended December 31, 2020, research and development expenses increased by $2,046,129 or 93%, to $4,252,249 from $2,206,120 for the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase is primarily due to $500,000 for software to manage compliance reporting and risk management for the VenoValve pivotal trial, $411,000 for the Good Lab Practices (GLP) animal safety study related to the IDE submission to the FDA, $102,000 for the VenoValve first in man study which continued into 2020 from 2019, $155,000 for a regulatory study also related to the IDE submission, $254,000 in increased lab supplies in preparation for the IDE study, $50,000 for consultants related to the GLP animal study and regulatory matters $300,000 to manage compliance reporting and risk management of the Coreograft clinical study, $112,000 for the Coreograft first-in man study started in 2020, and increased salaries and benefits expenses of $143,000 due to additional personnel hired in 2020.
Interest (Income) Expense, Net
For the year ended December 31, 2020, interest income, net decreased by $46,176 or 93%, to $3,739 in interest income, net from $49,915 in interest income, net for the year ended December 31, 2019, due to lower interest rates and lower investable balances in 2020 as compared to 2019. Interest income of $3,739 and $50,848 was earned during the year ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Change in Fair Value of Derivative Liability
For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recorded a gain on the change in fair value of derivative liabilities of $211,807. Our derivative liabilities were related to warrants issued in connection with our Bridge Offering.
Loss on Impairment
On May 10, 2013, the Company purchased United States Patent 7,815,677, “lntraparietal Aortic Valve Reinforcement Device and a Reinforced Biological Aortic Valve” from Leman Cardiovascular, S.A, which protects the critical design components and function relationships unique to the Company’s bio-prosthetic heart valve (“BHV”). The BHV is a bioprosthetic, pig heart valve designed to function like a native heart valve and early clinical testing has demonstrated that the BHV may be suitable for the pediatric population, as it accommodates for the growth concomitant with the patient. In accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 360-10 - Impairment of Long-Lived and Disposable Assets, the Company is required to test for impairment if certain criteria are present. The Company determined during the fourth quarter 2019 that based on limited R&D resources that are currently devoted to the development of the VenoValve and CoreoGraft products, it unlikely to continue the development of the BHV in the near future. Therefore, the Company recorded an impairment loss of $588,822, equal to the remaining unamortized value of the BHV as of December 31, 2019. We did not record any impairment loss in 2020.
Other expenses in 2020 primarily consisted of a $33,664 charge for warrants to purchase 6,400 shares of common stock issued to a consultant, a $122,200 expense for warrants issued to certain participants in the exchange of preferred stock for common stock, and a $32,240 expense for repricing of warrants issued to the placement agent in the Company’s February 2020 private placement.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
We have incurred losses since inception and negative cash flows from operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2020. Since inception, we have funded our operations primarily through our IPO, private and public offerings of equity and private placement of convertible debt securities as well as modest revenues from royalties, contract research and sales of the ProCol Vascular Bioprosthesis.
Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 increased by $1,780,810 or 30%, to $7,677,210 from $5,896,400 for the year ended December 31, 2019 primarily as a result of the higher net loss of $9,135,486 in 2020 as compared to $7,625,397 in 2019, an increase of $1,510,089, and decreases in in operating assets and liabilities for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared to 2019.
Net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 decreased by $183,600 or 50% to $180,291 from $363,891 for the year ended December 31, 2019 as a result of the decrease in our purchase of property and equipment. Purchase of property and equipment for the year ended December 31, 2020 was $180,291 and primarily consisted of approximately $123,000 for lab and test equipment, and $52,000 for other computer equipment and software. Purchase of property and equipment for the year ended December 31, 2019 was $363,891 and primarily consisted of approximately $210,000 for software to manage compliance, reporting and risk management of the VenoValve clinical study, approximately $120,000 for Hydrodynamic Test System for measuring characteristics of the VenoValve, approximately $24,000 for computer equipment and software and approximately $11,000 for engineering design software. The software purchased to manage compliance reporting and risk management provides live access, tracking and multiple project management reports to enhance study data and metrics reporting in those studies.
Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2020 increased by $9,437,867 or 167% to $15,074,799 from $5,636,932 for the year ended December 31, 2019. During 2020, the Company raised an aggregate of $14,762,099 in net proceeds in private and public placements of its common stock and of its preferred stock. During 2020, the Company raised $570,341 in net proceeds in a private placement of its common stock, $1,358,102 in net proceeds in a private placement of its Series C Convertible Preferred Stock, $9,847,901 in net proceeds in public offerings of its common stock, $2,985,755 in net proceeds from warrant exercises for its common stock, and $312,700 from a loan pursuant to the Paycheck Protection Program under the CARES Act.
During 2019, the Company raised $2,317,276 in net proceeds in the private placement offering of its common stock to certain accredited investors, and $3,319,656 in net proceeds in the public follow-on offering of its common stock.
On February 11, 2021, the Company raised approximately $38,143,000 in a public offering of its common stock and warrants to purchase common stock resulting in an immediate and substantial improvement in our liquidity.
We measure our liquidity in a variety of ways, including the following:
|Cash (excluding restricted cash)||$||9,334,584||$||1,307,231|
|Working capital (deficiency)||$||6,382,818||$||(452,434||)|
Based upon our cash and working capital as of December 31, 2020, and the proceeds from the offering closed on February 11, we have sufficient capital resources to meet our obligations as they become due within one year after the date of this Annual Report and sustain operations.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As a “smaller reporting company” as defined by Item 10 of Regulation S-K, we are not required to provide the information requested by paragraph (a)(5) of this Item.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying audited financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent liabilities at the dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from these estimates. Significant estimates and assumptions include the valuation allowance related to the Company’s deferred tax assets, and the valuation of warrants and derivative liabilities.
Equity investments over which the Company exercises significant influence, but does not control, are accounted for using the equity method, whereby investment accounts are increased (decreased) for the Company’s proportionate share of income (losses), but investment accounts are not reduced below zero.
The Company holds a 28.0% ownership investment, consisting of founders’ shares acquired at nominal cost, in HJLA. To date, HJLA has recorded cumulative losses. Since the Company’s investment is recorded at $0, the Company has not recorded its proportionate share of HJLA’s losses. If HJLA reports net income in future years, the Company will apply the equity method only after its share of HJLA’s net income equals its share of net losses previously incurred.
The Company recognizes revenue when goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration which it expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. Revenue is recognized from contracts with customers either at a “point in time” or “over time”, depending on the facts and circumstances of the arrangement that the Company evaluates using the following five-step analysis: (i) identification of contract with customer; (ii) determination of performance obligations; (iii) measurement of the transaction price; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) the Company satisfies each performance obligation.
The following table summarizes the Company’s revenue recognized in the accompanying statements of operations:
|For the Years Ended|
Royalty income was earned pursuant to the terms of our March 2016 asset sale agreement with LeMaitre Vascular, Inc., which three-year term ended on March 18, 2019. After March 18, 2019, we will not receive any royalty revenue from LeMaitre Vascular, Inc.
Information on Remaining Performance Obligations and Revenue Recognized from Past Performance
Information about remaining performance obligations pertaining to contracts that have an original expected duration of one year or less is not disclosed. The transaction price allocated to remaining unsatisfied or partially unsatisfied performance obligations with an original expected duration exceeding one year was not material at December 31, 2020.
The timing of our revenue recognition may differ from the timing of payment by our customers. A receivable is recorded when revenue is recognized prior to payment and the Company has an unconditional right to payment. Alternatively, when payment precedes the provision of the related services, deferred revenue is recorded until the performance obligations are satisfied. The Company had deferred revenue of $33,000 as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 related to cash received in advance for contract research and development services pursuant to the HJLA Agreement.
The Company measures the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award. The fair value of the award is measured on the grant date and recognized over the period services are required to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period. Forfeitures of unvested stock options are recorded when they occur.
The Company maintains cash with major financial institutions. Cash held in United States bank institutions is currently insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) up to $250,000 at each institution. There were aggregate uninsured cash balances of $9,084,584 and $1,867,286 as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, 100% of the Company’s revenues were from royalties earned from the sale of product by LeMaitre. The three-year Post-Acquisition Supply Agreement from which the Company earned royalty from the sale of product by LeMaitre ended on March 18, 2019.
We discuss events that have occurred after the balance sheet date through the date the financial statements are issued in Note 17 to the Financial Statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
We discuss the effect of recently issued accounting pronouncements in Note 3 to the Financial Statements.
|ITEM 7A.||Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk|
As a “smaller reporting company” as defined by Item 10 of Regulation S-K, we are not required to provide information required by this Item.
|ITEM 8.||Financial Statements and Supplementary Data|
Please see the financial statements beginning on page F-1 following the signature pages in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and incorporated herein by reference.
|ITEM 9.||Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure|
|ITEM 9A.||Controls and Procedures|
Evaluation of Controls and Procedures
Our management carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer (who is our Principal Executive Officer) and our Chief Financial Officer (who is our Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer), of the effectiveness of the design of our disclosure controls and procedures (as defined by Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) or 15d-15(e)) as of December 31, 2020, pursuant to Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(b). Based upon that evaluation, our Principal Executive Officer and Principal Financial Officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective, due to the material weakness in our internal controls over financial reporting described below.
Inherent Limitations on Effectiveness of Controls
It should be noted that any system of controls, however well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable, and not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the system will be met. In addition, the design of any control system is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events. Because of these and other inherent limitations of control systems, there is only reasonable assurance that our controls will succeed in achieving their goals under all potential future conditions.
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
As a result of ongoing remediation efforts, there was a material change in our internal control over financial reporting identified in connection with the evaluation required by Exchange Act Rule 13a-15(d) during the quarter ended December 31, 2020 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. Management, including the principal executive officer and principal financial officer, does not expect that our disclosure controls and procedures or our internal control over financial reporting will prevent or detect all error and all fraud. Controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable assurance of achieving their objectives and management necessarily applies its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. Over time, controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or deterioration in the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected. Our internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of consolidated financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including the principal executive officer and principal financial officer, we conducted an evaluation as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020. In making this assessment, our management used the criteria for effective internal control set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission in the 2013 Internal Control – Integrated Framework. Based on our assessment, our management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2020 due to the existence of a material weakness in our internal controls over complex equity transactions. A material weakness in internal control is a deficiency in internal control, or combination of control deficiencies, that adversely affects the Company’s ability to initiate, authorize, record, process, or report external financial data reliably in accordance with GAAP such that there is more than a remote likelihood that a material misstatement of the Company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected. The material weakness related to accounting for warrants issued in connection with our February 25, 2020 financing, in which we did not record an associated derivative liability on a timely basis. At the time of issuance, the Company sought and received technical accounting guidance on the accounting treatment for the derivative liability. However, due to personnel changes, the existence of the guidance was not known to new finance personnel. This deficiency did not result in the revision of any of our previously issued financial statements. However, if not addressed, the deficiency could have resulted in material misstatement in the future. Accordingly, our management has determined that this control deficiency constitutes a material weakness.
To remediate this weakness, we devoted resources, and will continue to devote resources to the remediation and improvement of our internal control over financial reporting, in particular over handling of complex financial accounting issues. As the Company enters into transactions that involve complex accounting issues, it will consult with third party professionals with expertise in these matters as necessary to ensure appropriate accounting treatment for such transactions.
This Annual Report on Form 10-K does not include an attestation report of our independent registered public accounting firm regarding internal control over financial reporting. Management’s report was not subject to attestation by the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm pursuant to a permanent exemption of the Commission that permits the Company to provide only management’s report in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Accordingly, our management’s assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020 has not been audited by our auditors, Marcum LLP.
|Item 9B.||Other Information|
|ITEM 10.||Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance|
Listed below are the names of the directors and executive officers of the Company, their ages as of the date of this Annual Report, their positions held and the year they commenced service with the Company.
|Name||Age||Position(s) Held||Year of Service Commencement|
|Robert A. Berman||58||Director, Chief Executive Officer||2018|
|Craig Glynn||59||Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer||2020|
|Dr. Francis Duhay||60||Director||2018|
|Dr. Sanjay Shrivastava||53||Director||2018|
|Matthew M. Jenusaitis||59||Director||2019|
|Robert C. Gray||
|Marc H. Glickman, M.D.||71||Senior Vice President and Chief Medical Officer||2016|
Robert A. Berman has served as our Chief Executive Officer and a member of our board of directors since April 2018. From September 2017 to March 2018, Mr. Berman worked as an independent strategic business consultant. From September 2012 to July 2017, he served as the President, Chief Executive Officer, and a member of the board of directors of ITUS Corporation (now called Anixa Biosciences), a Nasdaq listed company, that develops a liquid biopsy technology for early cancer detection. Prior to ITUS Corporation, from March 2007 to September 2012, Mr. Berman was the Chief Executive Officer of VIZ Technologies, a start-up company which developed and licensed a beverage dispensing cap, and he was the founder of IP Dispute Resolution Corporation, a company focused on intellectual property licensing. From 2000 to March 2007, Mr. Berman was the Chief Operating Officer and General Counsel of Acacia Research Corporation, which was a publicly traded company engaged in the licensing and enforcement of patented technologies. Prior thereto, Mr. Berman was a Director of Business Development at QVC where he developed and selected products for on-air sales and distribution. Mr. Berman started his career at the law firm of Blank Rome LLP. He has a Bachelor of Science in Entrepreneurial Management from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania and holds a Juris Doctorate degree from the Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law, where he serves as an adjunct faculty member. We believe Mr. Berman is qualified to serve as a member of our board of directors because of his experience in broad variety of areas including healthcare, finance, acquisitions, marketing, compliance, turnarounds, and the development and licensing of emerging technologies.
Dr. Francis Duhay has served as member of our board of directors since October 2018. A trained cardiac and thoracic surgeon, Dr. Duhay has served the President and Chief Operating officer of Aegis Surgical Inc. and Atrius Inc., makers of cardiac accessory devices, since 2016, and as a Partner in K5_Ventures, an early stage venture fund since 2017. Dr. Duhay is the former Chief Medical Officer at Edwards Life Sciences, a world leader in heart valve products, where he led medical and clinical affairs for transcatheter and surgical heart valves. During his tenure at Edwards Life Sciences, from 2008 to 2016, Dr. Duhay led the preparation and submission, and ultimate regulatory approval, of two FDA Premarket Approval (PMA) applications for transcatheter and surgical heart valve therapies and was responsible for the design and execution of the applicable clinical trials. From April 2008 to October 2011, Dr. Duhay was also the Vice President and General Manager of the Ascendra™ transcatheter heart valve business unit at Edwards, where he grew the unit from sixteen to eighty employees and contributed to annual growth in sales from $3 million to $250 million. From 1998 to 2003, Dr. Duhay served as the Chief of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Cardiology at Kaiser Permanente. Dr. Duhay has also served as an industry representative and clinical expert, and a member of the working group for ISO 5840, the international quality standard for the design, development, and testing of heart valves. Dr. Duhay received his MBA from the University of Hawaii - Shidler College of Business and received his board certification for Cardiothoracic Surgery and General Surgery from the Duke University School of Medicine and from the University of California, San Francisco, respectively. We believe that Dr. Duhay is qualified to serve as a member of our board of directors because he is a trained cardiac and thoracic surgeon and former Chief Medical Officer at Edwards Life Sciences.
Dr. Sanjay Shrivastava has served as a member of our board of directors since October 2018. He has been involved in developing, commercializing, evaluating, and acquiring medical devices for more than 18 years, including serving in Chief Executive Officer and board of director positions at several medical device start-ups, and leadership positions in research and development, business development, and marketing at BTG (from 2017 to 2018), Medtronic (2007 to 2017), Abbott Vascular (2003 to 2007), and Edwards Life Sciences (2000 to 2003). He is presently the Director of Business Development at Johnson & Johnson and a co-founder and board member of BlackSwan Vascular, Inc. While working as a vice president, upstream marketing and strategy at BTG, a medical device and specialty pharmaceutical company with annual revenue of about $800 million, Dr. Shrivastava worked on several acquisition and investment deals. At Medtronic, Dr. Shrivastava was the Director of Global Marketing for the Cardiac and Vascular Group where he helped build the embolization business, from its initiation to a substantial revenue with a very high CAGR over a period of six years. Dr. Shrivastava was a Manager of Research and Development for the peripheral vascular business at Abbott Vascular and a Principal Research and Development Engineer for Trans-Catheter heart valves at Edwards Life Sciences. Dr. Shrivastava received his Bachelor of Science in engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, and his Doctorate of Philosophy in materials science and engineering from the University of Florida. We believe that Dr. Shrivastava is qualified to serve as a member of our board of directors because of having served in Chief Executive Officer and board of director positions at several medical device start-ups, and leadership positions in research and development, business development, and marketing at BTG, Medtronic, Abbott Vascular, and Edwards Life Sciences.
Matthew M. Jenusaitis has served as a member of our board of directors since September 2019. He has over 30 years of health care experience with an emphasis on building and selling companies that develop medical devices to treat vascular diseases. Since March 2015, Mr. Jenusaitis has been the Chief of Staff and Chief of Innovation and Transformation for the UC San Diego Health System. From June 2009 to March 2015, Mr. Jenusaitis was President and CEO of OCTANe Foundation for Innovation, a non-profit focused on the development of innovation in Orange County, CA. Over the course of his career, Mr. Jenusaitis has been on the board of directors of Pulsar Vascular (2008-2017), which was sold to Johnson and Johnson, Creagh Medical (2008-2015), which was sold to SurModics, and Precision Wire Components (2009-2014), which was sold to Creganna Medical. Mr. Jenusaitis was also a Senior Vice President at ev3 (April 2006 to July 2008), which was sold to Covidian and later purchased by Medtronics. In addition, Mr. Jenusaitis was the President of the Peripheral Division at Boston Scientific (July 2003 to August 2005) and was an Executive in Residence at Warburg Pincus (September 2005 to March 2006). Mr. Jenusaitis has an MBA from the University of California, Irvine, a Masters Degree in Biomedical Engineering from Arizona State University, and a Bachelors Degree in Chemical Engineering from Cornell University. We believe that Mr. Jenusaitis is qualified to serve as a member of our board of directors because of over 30 years of health care experience with an emphasis on building and selling companies that develop medical devices to treat vascular diseases and his prior board experiences.
Robert C. Gray has served as a member of our board of directors since September 2019. He had a 20-year career at Highmark, Inc., one of America’s largest health insurance organizations, which serves over 20 million subscribers, and includes Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield Pennsylvania, Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield Delaware, and Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield West Virginia, which he retired from in 2008. While at Highmark, Mr. Gray helped increase revenues to $12.3 billion from $6.9 billion, and helped generate an operating gain of $375 million from an operating loss of $91 million. In addition to being the board chairman, Chief Executive Officer, and President of several of Highmark’s subsidiaries and affiliated companies, Mr. Gray was the Chief Financial Officer of Highmark’s parent company and was the primary contact to Highmark’s board of directors for Highmark’s audit, investment and compensation (incentive plans) committees. His many responsibilities at Highmark included rate setting and reimbursement negotiations. Following Highmark, Mr. Gray co-founded U.S. Holdings LLC (U.S. Implants LLC.), a national distributor of orthopedic implants, and has served as Vice President since 2009. Since 2011, Mr. Gray has also been self-employed as a strategy and financial consultant. Mr. Gray engaged in Postgraduate Studies at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill and has an undergraduate degree from Bucknell University. We believe that Mr. Gray is qualified to serve as a member of our board of directors because of his financial and medical reimbursement expertise having served as the Chief Financial Officer at Highmark, Inc., one of America’s largest health insurance organization.
Marc H. Glickman, M.D. has served as our Senior Vice President and Chief Medical Officer since May 2016 and served as member of our board of directors from July 2016 to August 2017. In 1981, Dr. Glickman started a vascular practice in Norfolk, Virginia. He established the first Vein Center in Virginia and also created a dialysis access center. He was employed by Sentara Health Care as director of Vascular Services until he retired in 2014. Dr. Glickman is a board certified vascular surgeon. Dr. Glickman received his Doctor of Medicine from Case Western Reserve, in Cleveland, Ohio and completed his residency at the University of Washington, Seattle. He is board certified in Vascular Surgery and was the past president of the Vascular Society of the Americas. He has served on the advisory boards of Possis Medical, Cohesion Technologies, Thoratec, GraftCath, Inc., TVA medical, Austin, Texas.
Craig Glynn was hired as our interim Chief Financial Officer in April 2020 and has subsequently been elevated to our fulltime Chief Financial Officer effective January 2021. Mr. Glynn has more than thirty-five years of experience providing financial services to a variety of public and private companies, including in the role as Chief Financial Officer. In 2012, Mr. Glynn founded Edward Thomas Associates, a firm that provides public and private companies with accounting and finance services, including chief financial officer services. Mr. Glynn has been a Managing Director of Edward Thomas Associates since 2012. Mr. Glynn has a proven record of success managing the financial aspects of dynamic organizations either as a member of the management team or in a consulting capacity. He started his career as an auditor with Deloitte and went on to be the CFO and Controller of several technology, manufacturing, and distribution companies. Mr. Glynn earned his BS and MS degrees in Accounting from California State University Northridge. He is a member of the American Institute of CPAs.
There are no arrangements between our directors and any other person pursuant to which our directors were nominated or elected for their positions. There are no family relationships between any of our directors or executive officers.
Section 16(a) Beneficial Ownership Reporting Compliance
Section 16(a) of the Exchange Act requires our directors, executive officers and ten percent stockholders to file initial reports of ownership and reports of changes in ownership of our common stock with the Commission. Directors, executive officers and ten percent stockholders are also required to furnish us with copies of all Section 16(a) forms that they file. Based upon a review of these filings, we believe that all required Section 16(a) reports were made on a timely basis during fiscal year 2020 other than as follows:
Matthew M. Jenusaitis filed late a Form 4 reporting the grant pursuant to Rule 16b-3(d) of (i) an option to purchase 4,000 shares of common stock granted in July 2020 which fully vested during 2020 with an exercise price of $10.00 per share and (ii) $40,000 of restricted stock granted in July 2020 which fully vested during 2020.
Our business and affairs are organized under the direction of our board of directors, which currently consists of five members. Our directors hold office until the earlier of their death, incapacity, removal or resignation, or until their successors have been elected and qualified. Our board of directors does not have a formal policy on whether the roles of a Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of our board of directors should be separate. The primary responsibilities of our board of directors are to provide oversight, strategic guidance, counseling and direction to our management. Our board of directors meets on a regular basis. Our bylaws provide that the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors.
We have no formal policy regarding board diversity. Our priority in selection of board members is identification of members who will further the interests of our stockholders through his or her established record of professional accomplishment, the ability to contribute positively to the collaborative culture among board members, knowledge of our business and understanding of the competitive landscape.
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation divides our board of directors into three classes, with staggered three-year terms, as follows:
Class I Directors (serving until the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, or until their earlier death, disability, resignation or removal):
Dr. Francis Duhay* and Dr. Sanjay Shrivastava*
Class II Directors (serving until the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, or until their earlier death, disability, resignation or removal):
Matthew M. Jenusaitis*, Robert A. Berman
Class III Director (serving until the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, or until his earlier death, disability, resignation or removal):
Robert C. Gray*
(*) Independent Director.
At each annual meeting of stockholders to be held after the initial classification, the successors to directors whose terms then expire will serve until the third annual meeting following their election and until their successors are duly elected and qualified. The authorized size of our board of directors is currently five members. The authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors. Any additional directorships resulting from an increase in the number of directors will be distributed between the three classes so that, as nearly as possible, each class will consist of one-third of the directors. This classification of the board of directors may have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in our control or management. Our directors may be removed for cause by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of our voting stock.
The Nasdaq Marketplace Rules require a majority of a listed company’s board of directors to be comprised of independent directors within one year of listing. In addition, the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules require that, subject to specified exceptions, each member of a listed company’s audit, compensation and nominating and corporate governance committees be independent and that audit committee members also satisfy independence criteria set forth in Rule 10A-3 under the Exchange Act.
Under Rule 5605(a)(2) of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules, a director will only qualify as an “independent director” if, in the opinion of our board of directors, that person does not have a relationship that would interfere with the exercise of independent judgment in carrying out the responsibilities of a director. In order to be considered independent for purposes of Rule 10A-3 of the Exchange Act, a member of an audit committee of a listed company may not, other than in his or her capacity as a member of the audit committee, the board of directors, or any other board committee, accept, directly or indirectly, any consulting, advisory, or other compensatory fee from the listed company or any of its subsidiaries or otherwise be an affiliated person of the listed company or any of its subsidiaries.
Our board of directors has reviewed the composition of our board of directors and its committees and the independence of each director. Based upon information requested from and provided by each director concerning his background, employment and affiliations, including family relationships, our board of directors has determined that each of Dr. Duhay, Mr. Gray, Mr. Jenusaitis and Dr. Shrivastava is an “independent director” as defined under Rule 5605(a)(2) of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules. Our board of directors also determined that Mr. Gray, Mr. Jenusaitis and Dr. Shrivastava will serve on our audit committee, Mr. Gray and Mr. Jenusaitis and Dr. Shrivastava will serve on our compensation committee, and Dr. Duhay, Mr. Jenusaitis and Dr. Shrivastava will serve on our nominating and corporate governance committee, and that each of the committees satisfy the independence standards for such committees established by the SEC and the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules, as applicable. In making such determinations, our board of directors considered the relationships that each such non-employee director has with our company and all other facts and circumstances our board of directors deemed relevant in determining independence, including the beneficial ownership of our capital stock by each non-employee director.
Meetings of the Board and Stockholders
Our board of directors met in person and telephonically five times during 2020 and also acted by unanimous written consent. There were four Audit Committee meetings, one Compensation meeting and one Nominating and Corporate Governance meeting held in 2020. Our board of directors had 100% attendance for the Annual Meeting that was held on December 17, 2020. It is our policy that all directors must attend all stockholder meetings, barring extenuating circumstances.
Our board of directors has established three standing committees—audit, compensation, and nominating and corporate governance—each of which operates under a charter that has been approved by our board of directors. Copies of each committee’s charter are posted on the Investors section of our website, which is located at www.hancockjaffe.com. Each committee has the composition and responsibilities described below. Our board of directors may from time to time establish other committees.
Our audit committee consists of Mr. Gray, who is the chair of the audit committee, Mr. Jenusaitis and Dr. Shrivastava. Our board of directors has determined that each of the members of our audit committee satisfies the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules and SEC independence requirements. The functions of this committee include, among other things:
|●||evaluating the performance, independence and qualifications of our independent auditors and determining whether to retain our existing independent auditors or engage new independent auditors;|
|●||reviewing and approving the engagement of our independent auditors to perform audit services and any permissible non-audit services;|
|●||reviewing our annual and quarterly financial statements and reports, including the disclosures contained under the caption “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and discussing the statements and reports with our independent auditors and management;|
|●||reviewing with our independent auditors and management significant issues that arise regarding accounting principles and financial statement presentation and matters concerning the scope, adequacy and effectiveness of our financial controls;|
|●||reviewing our major financial risk exposures, including the guidelines and policies to govern the process by which risk assessment and risk management is implemented; and|
|●||reviewing and evaluating on an annual basis the performance of the audit committee, including compliance of the audit committee with its charter.|
Our board of directors has determined that Mr. Gray qualifies as an “audit committee financial expert” within the meaning of applicable SEC regulations and meets the financial sophistication requirements of the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules. Both our independent registered public accounting firm and management periodically meet privately with our audit committee.
Our compensation committee consists of Dr. Shrivastava, who is the chair of the committee, Mr. Gray and Mr. Jenusaitis. Our board of directors has determined that each of the members of our compensation committee is an outside director, as defined pursuant to Section 162(m) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, and satisfies the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules independence requirements. The functions of this committee include, among other things:
|●||reviewing, modifying and approving (or if it deems appropriate, making recommendations to the full board of directors regarding) our overall compensation strategy and policies;|
|●||reviewing and approving the compensation, the performance goals and objectives relevant to the compensation, and other terms of employment of our Chief Executive Officers and our other executive officers;|
|●||reviewing and approving (or if it deems appropriate, making recommendations to the full board of directors regarding) the equity incentive plans, compensation plans and similar programs advisable for us, as well as modifying, amending or terminating existing plans and programs;|
|●||reviewing and approving the terms of any employment agreements, severance arrangements, change in control protections and any other compensatory arrangements for our executive officers;|
|●||reviewing with management and approving our disclosures under the caption “Compensation Discussion and Analysis” in our periodic reports or proxy statements to be filed with the SEC; and|
|●||preparing the report that the SEC requires in our annual proxy statement.|
Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee
Our nominating and corporate governance committee consists of Dr. Duhay, who is the chair of the committee, Mr. Jenusaitis and Dr. Shrivastava. Our board of directors has determined that each of the members of this committee satisfies the Nasdaq Marketplace Rules independence requirements. The functions of this committee include, among other things:
|●||identifying, reviewing and evaluating candidates to serve on our board of directors consistent with criteria approved by our board of directors;|
|●||evaluating director performance on our board of directors and applicable committees of our board of directors and determining whether continued service on our board of directors is appropriate;|
|●||evaluating, nominating and recommending individuals for membership on our board of directors; and|
|●||evaluating nominations by stockholders of candidates for election to our board of directors.|
Code of Conduct
Our board of directors has adopted a written code of conduct that applies to our directors, officers and employees, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller, or persons performing similar functions. We have posted on our website a current copy of the code and all disclosures that are required by law or Nasdaq Marketplace Rules concerning any amendments to, or waivers from, any provision of the code.
Board Leadership Structure
Our board of directors is free to select the Chairman of the board of directors and a Chief Executive Officer in a manner that it considers to be in the best interests of our company at the time of selection. Currently, Robert A. Berman serves as our Chief Executive Officer. The office of the Chairman of the board of directors remains vacant since the voluntary resignation of Mr. Yury Zhivilo in May 2019. We currently believe that this leadership structure is in our best interests and strikes an appropriate balance between our Chief Executive Officer’s responsibility for the day-to-day management of our company and the Chairman of the board of directors’ responsibility to provide oversight, including setting the board of directors’ meeting agendas and presiding at executive sessions of the independent directors. Additionally, four of our five members of our board of directors have been deemed to be “independent” by the board of directors, which we believe provides sufficient independent oversight of our management. Our board of directors has not designated a lead independent director.
Our board of directors, as a whole and also at the committee level, plays an active role overseeing the overall management of our risks. Our Audit Committee reviews risks related to financial and operational items with our management and our independent registered public accounting firm. Our board of directors is in regular contact with our Chief Executive Officer, who reports directly to our board of directors and who supervises day-to-day risk management.
Role of Board in Risk Oversight Process
Our board of directors believes that risk management is an important part of establishing, updating and executing on our business strategy. Our board of directors has oversight responsibility relating to risks that could affect the corporate strategy, business objectives, compliance, operations, and the financial condition and performance of our company. Our board of directors focuses its oversight on the most significant risks facing us and on our processes to identify, prioritize, assess, manage and mitigate those risks. Our board of directors receives regular reports from members of our senior management on areas of material risk to us, including strategic, operational, financial, legal and regulatory risks. While our board of directors has an oversight role, management is principally tasked with direct responsibility for management and assessment of risks and the implementation of processes and controls to mitigate their effects on us.
Certain Legal Proceedings
None of the Company’s directors or executive officers have been involved, in the past ten years and in a manner material to an evaluation of such director’s or officer’s ability or integrity to serve as a director or executive officer, in any of those “Certain Legal Proceedings” more fully detailed in Item 401(f) of Regulation S-K, which include but are not limited to, bankruptcies, criminal convictions and an adjudication finding that an individual violated federal or state securities laws.
|ITEM 11.||Executive Compensation|
The following table sets forth total compensation paid to our named executive officers for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. Individuals we refer to as our “named executive officers” include our current Chief Executive Officer, our current and previous Chief Financial Officer and our other most highly compensated executive officer whose salary and bonus for services rendered in all capacities exceeded $100,000 during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.
|Year||Salary ($)||Bonus ($)||Option Awards ($)||Non-Equity Incentive Plan Compensation ($)||Nonqualified|
Deferred Compensation Earnings ($)
|All Other Compensation ($)||Total|
|Robert A. Berman||2020||400,000||200,000||478,171||(4)||15,808||(8)||1,093,979|
|Chief Executive Officer||2019||400,000||15,285||(9)||415,285|
|Robert A. Rankin||2020||73,077||(1)||10,586||(10)||83,663|
|Former Chief Financial Officer, Secretary and Treasurer||2019||250,000||44,195||(11)||294,195|
Chief Financial Officer
|Marc H. Glickman, M.D.||2020||350,000||50,000||321,928||(6)||53,976||(12)||775,904|
|Chief Medical Officer and Senior Vice President||2019||322,115||(3)||-||49,095||(7)||-||-||50,814||(13)||422,024|
|(1)||Mr. Rankin’s annual base salary rate under his employment agreement was $250,000. Mr. Rankin resigned as the Company’s Chief Financial Officer, Secretary and Treasurer on March 30, 2020. Amounts in this column for Mr. Rankin reflect his base salary earned for 2020.|
|(2)||Mr. Glynn served as our Chief Financial Officer on an interim basis during 2020. Amounts in this column for Mr. Glynn include the amounts paid to him in that capacity during 2020. In January 2021, the board of directors elevated Mr. Glynn to permanent Chief Financial Officer. The company entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Glynn in February 2021.|
|(3)||Beginning July 26, 2019, Dr. Glickman’s annual base salary rate under his employment agreement dated July 26, 2019, which superseded his prior employment agreement, was $350,000. Amounts in this column for Dr. Glickman reflect his base salary earned for 2019.|
|(4)||Represents the grant date fair value of 40,000 stock options granted on July 18, 2020, computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. The options vest monthly over a three-year period. Also included is the fair value of his existing 43,209 options that were repriced from $124.75 per share to $10.00 per share.|
|(5)||Represents the grant date fair value of 4,000 stock options granted on July 18, 2020, computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. The options vest quarterly over a three-year period.|
|(6)||Represents the grant date fair value of 40,000 stock options granted on July 18, 2020, computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. The options vest monthly over a three-year period.|
|(7)||Represents the grant date fair value of 7,200 stock options granted on July 26, 2019, computed in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718. The options vest quarterly over a three year period. Also included is the fair value of his existing 7,380 options that were repriced from $250.00 per share to $50.00 per share in connection with entering the July 26, 2019 employment agreement.|
|(8)||Includes company paid healthcare of $1,404 and 401(k) match of $14,404.|
|(9)||Includes company paid healthcare of $1,285 and 401(k) match of $14,000.|
|(10)||Includes company paid healthcare of $7,221 and 401(k) match of $3,365.|
|(11)||Includes company paid healthcare of $31,695 and 401(k) match of $12,500.|
|(12)||Includes company paid healthcare of $39,691 and 401(k) match of $14,285.|
|(13)||Includes company paid healthcare of $36,814 and 401(k) match of $14,000.|
We have entered into various employment agreements with certain of our executive officers. Set forth below is a summary of many of the material provisions of such agreements, which summaries do not purport to contain all of the material terms and conditions of each such agreement. For purposes of the following employment agreements:
|●||“Cause” generally means the executive’s (i) willful misconduct or gross negligence in the performance of his or her duties to us; (ii) willful failure to perform his or her duties to us or to follow the lawful directives of the Chief Executive Officer (other than as a result of death or disability); (iii) indictment for, conviction of or pleading of guilty or nolo contendere to, a felony or any crime involving moral turpitude: (iv) repeated failure to cooperate in any audit or investigation of our business or financial practices; (v) performance of any material act of theft, embezzlement, fraud, malfeasance, dishonesty or misappropriation of our property; or (vi) material breach of his or her employment agreement or any other material agreement with us or a material violation of our code of conduct or other written policy.|
|●||“Good reason” generally means, subject to certain notice requirements and cure rights, without the executive’s consent, (i) material diminution in his or her base salary or annual bonus opportunity; (ii) material diminution in his or her authority or duties (although a change in title will not constitute “good reason”), other than temporarily while physically or mentally incapacitated, as required by applicable law; (iii) relocation of his or her primary work location by more than 25 miles from its then current location; or (iv) a material breach by us of a material term of the employment agreement.|
|●||“Change of control” generally means (i) the acquisition, other than from us, by any individual, entity or group (within the meaning of Section 13(d)(3) or Section 14(d)(2) of the Exchange Act), other than us or any subsidiary, affiliate (within the meaning of Rule 144 promulgated under the Securities Act) or employee benefit plan of ours, of beneficial ownership (within the meaning of Rule 13d-3 promulgated under the Exchange Act) of more than 50% of the combined voting power of our then outstanding voting securities entitled to vote generally in the election of directors; (ii) a reorganization, merger, consolidation or recapitalization of us, other than a transaction in which more than 50% of the combined voting power of the outstanding voting securities of the surviving or resulting entity immediately following such transaction is held by the persons who, immediately prior to the transaction, were the holders of our voting securities; or (iii) a complete liquidation or dissolution of us, or a sale of all or substantially all of our assets.|
Robert A. Berman
On March 30, 2018, we entered into an employment agreement with Robert A. Berman, our current Chief Executive Officer and director. Pursuant to the terms of his employment agreement, Mr. Berman’s base salary is $400,000, subject to annual review and adjustment at the discretion of our compensation committee, and he will be eligible for an annual year-end discretionary bonus of up to 50% of his base salary, subject to the achievement of key performance indicators, as determined by our compensation committee. The initial term of Mr. Berman’s employment agreement may be terminated at anytime with or without cause and with or without notice or for good reason thereunder. In connection with his employment, Mr. Berman received an initial equity grant of an option to purchase 43,209 options with 8,642 vesting on the date of his Employment Agreement, March 30, 2018, and the remaining 80% vesting ratably on a monthly basis over the following 24 months. In February 2021, the board of directors approved an option grant to Mr. Berman to purchase 838,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $8.20 per shares (the closing price of the Company’s common stock on February 18, 2021). The stock option vests in equal quarterly installments over a two year period, however the stock options may only become exercisable following receipt by the Company of stockholder approval to increase the size of the 2016 Plan sufficiently to permit the exercise in full of such stock options under the 2016 Plan (if the Company’s stockholders do not approve an increase in the size of the 2016 Plan, the options will be void). Additionally, the board of directors paid Mr. Berman a cash bonus of $200,000.
Mr. Berman is entitled to participate in our employee benefit, pension and/or profit sharing plans, and we will pay certain health and dental premiums on his behalf. Mr. Berman’s employment agreement prohibits him from inducing, soliciting or entertaining any of our employees to leave our employ during the term of the agreement and for 12 months thereafter.
Pursuant to the terms of his employment agreement, Mr. Berman is entitled to severance in the event of certain terminations of employment. In the event Mr. Berman’s employment is terminated by us without cause and other than by reason of disability or he resigns for good reason, subject to his timely executing a release of claims in our favor and in addition to certain other accrued benefits, he is entitled to receive 6 month of base salary if termination occurred prior to the second anniversary of his employment or 12 months of continued base salary on and after the second anniversary of his employment (or 24 months if such termination occurs within 24 months following a change of control).
Robert A. Rankin
On July 16, 2018, the Company entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Rankin which provides for an annual base salary of $250,000 as well as standard employee insurance and other benefits. Pursuant to this agreement, Mr. Rankin is eligible for annual salary increases at the discretion of our board of directors as well as an annual year-end discretionary bonus of up to 30% of his base salary, subject to the achievement of key performance indicators, as determined by the board and the Chief Executive Officer of the Company in their sole discretion. In connection with his employment, Mr. Rankin received an initial equity grant of an option to purchase 6,000 options with 2,000 options vesting on July 16, 2019 and the remaining 4,000 vesting on a quarterly basis over the following two-year period. Mr. Rankin’s options were forfeit as a result of his resignation.
Mr. Rankin’s employment agreement provides for severance payments in the event of termination without Cause or he resigns for Good Reason (as defined in the agreement), equal to three months of base salary for each year that he has been employed by the Company at the time of termination, up to a total of one year of his base salary, provided, that if such termination results from a Change of Control (as defined in the agreement), Mr. Rankin’s severance will not be less than six months of his base salary
Mr. Rankin’s employment with the Company is “at-will” and may be terminated at any time, with or without cause and with or without notice by either Mr. Rankin or the Company.
Effective March 30, 2020, Mr. Rankin resigned from the Company.
On February 19, 2021, the Company entered into an employment agreement with Mr. Glynn, in connection with Mr. Glynn’s elevation to full time Chief Financial Officer in addition to treasurer and secretary of the Company. Pursuant to the employment agreement, Mr. Glynn will earn $225,000 per year. In addition, Mr. Glynn will receive stock options to purchase 324,000 shares of common stock of the Company at an exercise price of $8.20 per shares (the closing price of the Company’s common stock on February 18, 2021). The stock options vest in equal quarterly installments over a three year period with a six month cliff, however the stock options may only become exercisable following receipt by the Company of stockholder approval to increase the size of the 2016 Plan, sufficiently to permit the exercise in full of such stock options under the Plan (if the Company’s stockholders do not approve an increase in the size of the 2016 Plan, the options will be void). The employment agreement further provides that Mr. Glynn is entitled to participate in any employee benefit plans that the Company has adopted or may adopt.
Pursuant to the terms of the employment agreement, Mr. Glynn’s employment agreement is terminable due to Mr. Glynn’s disability or death, for “Cause” (as defined in the employment agreement) or without “Cause” by the Company, and for “Good Reason” (as defined in the employment agreement) or voluntarily by Mr. Glynn. In the event of Mr. Glynn’s death or disability, or termination for “Cause” by the Company or without “Good Reason” by Mr. Glynn, Mr. Glynn (or his estate) is entitled to receive any unpaid base salary through the termination date, reimbursement for unreimbursed business expenses, accrued but unused vacation time in accordance with the Company’s policy and any other payments or benefits that Mr. Glynn as entitled to in accordance with any Company benefit plans (collectively, the “Accrued Benefits”). Upon termination without “Cause” (other than by reason of death or disability) or resignation for “Good Reason,” Mr. Glynn will be entitled to three months of severance for each year Mr. Glynn is employed up to one year of severance, in addition to all Accrued Benefits. Any outstanding unvested securities owned by Mr. Glynn on the termination date will vest (or terminate) in accordance with the terms of such grant.
Prior to his full time role as Chief Financial Officer, on April 6, 2020 he was appointed as Interim Chief Financial Officer and Interim Treasurer. For his services as Interim Chief Financial Officer and Interim Treasurer, Mr. Glynn was paid $10,000 per month of employment.
Marc H. Glickman, M.D.
On July 22, 2016, we entered into an employment agreement with Marc H. Glickman, M.D., our Senior Vice President and Chief Medical Officer (the “Pre-existing Employment Agreement”). Pursuant to the terms of his Pre-existing Employment Agreement, Dr. Glickman’s base salary is $300,000, subject to annual review and adjustment at the discretion of our board of directors, and he will be eligible for an annual year-end discretionary bonus of up to 50% of his base salary, subject to the achievement of key performance indicators, as determined by our board of directors. In connection with his Pre-existing Employment Agreement, Dr. Glickman received an initial equity grant of an option to purchase up to 7,380 shares of our common stock with 20% of the shares vesting immediately and 80% vesting on a monthly basis over 24 months thereafter. The initial term of Dr. Glickman’s Pre-existing Employment Agreement ended on December 31, 2018 and was automatically extended for additional three-year terms.
On July 26, 2019, we entered into an employment agreement with Dr. Glickman (the “New Employment Agreement”) that supersedes the terms of the Pre-existing Employment Agreement. Pursuant to the terms of the New Employment Agreement, Dr. Glickman’s base salary is $350,000 per year, subject to annual review and adjustment at the discretion of the Board. In connection with entering into the New Employment Agreement, Dr. Glickman’s existing seven thousand three hundred and eighty (7,380) options (“Existing Options”) to purchase Company common stock at two hundred and fifty dollars ($250.00) per share until October 1, 2026, were repriced to fifty dollars ($50.00) per share. Additionally, Dr. Glickman, in connection to the New Employment Agreement, was granted stock options for the right to purchase seven thousand two hundred (7,200) common stock at a price equal to two dollars ($50.00) per share exercisable until July 26, 2029, which shall vest quarterly over a three (3) year period. In February 2021, the board of directors approved an option grant to Dr. Glickman to purchase 406,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $8.20 per shares (the closing price of the Company’s common stock on February 18, 2021). The stock option vests in equal quarterly installments over a two year period, however the stock options may only become exercisable following receipt by the Company of stockholder approval to increase the size of the 2016 Plan sufficiently to permit the exercise in full of such stock options under the 2016 Plan (if the Company’s stockholders do not approve an increase in the size of the 2016 Plan, the options will be void). Additionally, the board of directors paid Mr. Berman a cash bonus of $50,000.
Pursuant to the terms of the New Employment Agreement, Dr. Glickman is an at-will employee and is entitled to severance in the event of certain terminations of his employment. In the event that Dr. Glickman’s employment is terminated by the Company without Cause (as defined in the New Employment Agreement), other than by reason of Disability (as defined in the New Employment Agreement), or he resigns for Good Reason (as defined in the New Employment Agreement), subject to his timely executing a release of claims in favor of the Company and in addition to certain other accrued benefits, Dr. Glickman is entitled to receive three months of his base salary for each year that he has been employed by the Company at the time of termination, up to a total of one year of his base salary.
Potential Payments Upon Termination or Change-in-Control
Pursuant to the terms of the employment agreements discussed above, we will pay severance in the event of certain terminations of employment. In the event employment is terminated by us without cause and other than by reason of disability or if the executive resigns for good reason, subject to his or her timely executing a release of claims in our favor and in addition to certain other accrued benefits, he or she is entitled to receive severance pursuant to the terms of his or her employment agreements discussed above.
Outstanding Equity Awards at Fiscal Year-End
The following table sets forth information regarding equity awards held by our named executive officers as of December 31, 2020.
|Name||Number of securities underlying unexercised options (#) exercisable||Number of securities underlying unexercised options (#) unexercisable||Equity incentive plan awards: Number of securities underlying unexercised unearned options (#)||Option exercise price ($)|
|Robert A. Berman,||43,209||(1)||-||(1)||N/A||$||10.00||September 23, 2028|
|Chief Executive Officer||6,000||(2)||34,000||(2)||$||10.00||July 18, 2030|
|Marc H. Glickman, M.D.||3,000||(3)||4,200||(3)||N/A||$||50.00||July 25, 2029|
|Chief Medical Officer and Senior Vice President||7,380||(3)||-||N/A||$||50.00||October 1, 2026|
|6,000||(2)||34,000||(2)||-||$||10.00||July 18, 2030|
|Craig Glynn, Chief Financial Officer (5)||600||(4)||3,400||(4)||N/A||$||10.00||July 18, 2030|
|(1)||Options were granted on September 24, 2018, and vested 20% on the date of his Employment Agreement, March 30, 2018, and the remaining 80% vests ratably on a monthly basis over the 24 months following the date of his Employment Agreement.|
|(2)||Options were granted on July 18, 2020 and vest ratably on a monthly basis over 36 months.|
|(3)||On July 26, 2019, the Company entered a new employment agreement with Dr. Glickman that superseded the terms of his existing employment agreement. In connection with entering into the new employment agreement, Dr. Glickman’s existing 7,380 options that were granted on October 1, 2016 were repriced from $250.00 to $50.00 per share. Additionally, on July 26, 2019, Dr. Glickman was granted 7,200 options at $50.00 per share vesting quarterly over a three-year period.|
|(4)||Options were granted on July 18, 2020 and vest ratably on a quarterly basis over three years.|
|(5)||Mr. Glynn was elevated to permanent Chief Financial Officer in January 2021.|
Employee Benefit Plans
Amended and Restated 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan
On October 1, 2016, our board of directors and our stockholders adopted and approved the Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc. 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan, and, subsequently, on April 26, 2018, our board of directors and our stockholders adopted and approved the Amended and Restated 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan which was subsequently amended by Amendment No. 1 to the Amended and Restated 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan following receipt of stockholder approval on December 17, 2020 (as amended, the “2016 Plan”). The principal features of the 2016 Plan are summarized below. This summary is qualified in its entirety by reference to the text of the 2016 Plan, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
We have reserved 600,000 shares of our common stock for issuance under the 2016 Plan, plus an annual increase on each January 1st by an amount equal to 3% of the total issued and outstanding shares of our common stock as of such date (or such lesser number of shares as may be determined by our board of directors), all of which may be granted as incentive stock options under Code Section 422. The shares of common stock issuable under the 2016 Plan will consist of authorized and unissued shares, treasury shares or shares purchased on the open market or otherwise, all as determined by our company from time to time.
If any award is canceled, terminates, expires or lapses for any reason prior to the issuance of shares or if shares are issued under the 2016 Plan and thereafter are forfeited to us, the shares subject to such awards and the forfeited shares will not count against the aggregate number of shares of common stock available for grant under the 2016 Plan. In addition, the following items will not count against the aggregate number of shares of common stock available for grant under the 2016 Plan: (1) shares issued under the 2016 Plan repurchased or surrendered at no more than cost or pursuant to an option exchange program, (2) any award that is settled in cash rather than by issuance of shares of common stock, (3) shares surrendered or tendered in payment of the option price or purchase price of an award or any taxes required to be withheld in respect of an award or (4) awards granted in assumption of or in substitution for awards previously granted by an acquired company.
The 2016 Plan may be administered by our board of directors or our compensation committee. Our compensation committee, in its discretion, selects the individuals to whom awards may be granted, the time or times at which such awards are granted and the terms and conditions of such awards. Our board of directors also has the authority, subject to the terms of the 2016 Plan, to amend existing options (including to reduce the option’s exercise price), to institute an exchange program by which outstanding options may be surrendered in exchange for options that may have different exercise prices and terms, restricted stock, and/or cash or other property.
Awards may be granted under the 2016 Plan to officers, employees, directors, consultants and advisors of us and our affiliates. Incentive stock options may be granted only to employees of us or our subsidiaries.
The 2016 Plan permits the granting of any or all of the following types of awards:
|●||Stock Options. Stock options entitle the holder to purchase a specified number of shares of common stock at a specified price (the exercise price), subject to the terms and conditions of the stock option grant. Our compensation committee may grant either incentive stock options, which must comply with Code Section 422, or nonqualified stock options. Our compensation committee sets exercise prices and terms and conditions, except that stock options must be granted with an exercise price not less than 100% of the fair market value of our common stock on the date of grant (excluding stock options granted in connection with assuming or substituting stock options in acquisition transactions). Unless our compensation committee determines otherwise, fair market value means, as of a given date, the closing price of our common stock. At the time of grant, our compensation committee determines the terms and conditions of stock options, including the quantity, exercise price, vesting periods, term (which cannot exceed 10 years) and other conditions on exercise.|
|●||Stock Appreciation Rights. Our compensation committee may grant SARs, as a right in tandem with the number of shares underlying stock options granted under the 2016 Plan or as a freestanding award. Upon exercise, SARs entitle the holder to receive payment per share in stock or cash, or in a combination of stock and cash, equal to the excess of the share’s fair market value on the date of exercise over the grant price of the SAR. The grant price of a tandem SAR is equal to the exercise price of the related stock option and the grant price for a freestanding SAR is determined by our compensation committee in accordance with the procedures described above for stock options. Exercise of a SAR issued in tandem with a stock option will reduce the number of shares underlying the related stock option to the extent of the SAR exercised. The term of a freestanding SAR cannot exceed 10 years, and the term of a tandem SAR cannot exceed the term of the related stock option.|
|●||Restricted Stock, Restricted Stock Units and Other Stock-Based Awards. Our compensation committee may grant awards of restricted stock, which are shares of common stock subject to specified restrictions, and restricted stock units, or RSUs, which represent the right to receive shares of our common stock in the future. These awards may be made subject to repurchase, forfeiture or vesting restrictions at our compensation committee’s discretion. The restrictions may be based on continuous service with us or the attainment of specified performance goals, as determined by our compensation committee. Stock units may be paid in stock or cash or a combination of stock and cash, as determined by our compensation committee. Our compensation committee may also grant other types of equity or equity-based awards subject to the terms and conditions of the 2016 Plan and any other terms and conditions determined by our compensation committee.|
|●||Performance Awards. Our compensation committee may grant performance awards, which entitle participants to receive a payment from us, the amount of which is based on the attainment of performance goals established by our compensation committee over a specified award period. Performance awards may be denominated in shares of common stock or in cash, and may be paid in stock or cash or a combination of stock and cash, as determined by our compensation committee. Cash-based performance awards include annual incentive awards.|
All cash and equity awards granted under the 2016 plan will be subject to all applicable laws regarding the recovery of erroneously awarded compensation, any implementing rules and regulations under such laws, any policies we adopted to implement such requirements and any other compensation recovery policies as we may adopt from time to time.
Change in Control
Under the 2016 Plan, in the event of a change in control (as defined in the 2016 Plan), outstanding awards will be treated in accordance with the applicable transaction agreement. If no treatment is provided for in the transaction agreement, each award holder will be entitled to receive the same consideration that stockholders receive in the change in control for each share of stock subject to the award holder’s awards, upon the exercise, payment or transfer of the awards, but the awards will remain subject to the same terms, conditions and performance criteria applicable to the awards before the change in control, unless otherwise determined by our compensation committee. In connection with a change in control, outstanding stock options and SARs can be cancelled in exchange for the excess of the per share consideration paid to stockholders in the transaction, minus the option or SARs exercise price.
Subject to the terms and conditions of the applicable award agreements, awards granted to non-employee directors will fully vest on an accelerated basis, and any performance goals will be deemed to be satisfied at target. For awards granted to all other service providers, vesting of awards will depend on whether the awards are assumed, converted or replaced by the resulting entity.
|●||For awards that are not assumed, converted or replaced, the awards will vest upon the change in control. For performance awards, the amount vesting will be based on the greater of (1) achievement of all performance goals at the “target” level or (2) the actual level of achievement of performance goals as of our fiscal quarter end preceding the change in control, and will be prorated based on the portion of the performance period that had been completed through the date of the change in control.|
|●||For awards that are assumed, converted or replaced by the resulting entity, no automatic vesting will occur upon the change in control. Instead, the awards, as adjusted in connection with the transaction, will continue to vest in accordance with their terms and conditions. In addition, the awards will vest if the award recipient has a separation from service within two years after a change in control by us other than for “cause” or by the award recipient for “good reason” (each as defined in the applicable award agreement). For performance awards, the amount vesting will be based on the greater of (1) achievement of all performance goals at the “target” level or (2) the actual level of achievement of performance goals as of our fiscal quarter end preceding the change in control, and will be prorated based on the portion of the performance period that had been completed through the date of the separation from service.|
Amendment and Termination of the 2016 Plan
Unless earlier terminated by our board of directors, the 2016 Plan will terminate, and no further awards may be granted, 10 years after October 1, 2016, the date on which it was approved by our stockholders. Our board of directors may amend, suspend or terminate the 2016 Plan at any time, except that, if required by applicable law, regulation or stock exchange rule, stockholder approval will be required for any amendment. The amendment, suspension or termination of the 2016 Plan or the amendment of an outstanding award generally may not, without a participant’s consent, materially impair the participant’s rights under an outstanding award.
Limitation of Liability and Indemnification Matters
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation limits the liability of our directors for monetary damages for breach of their fiduciary duties, except for liability that cannot be eliminated under the DGCL. Consequently, our directors will not be personally liable for monetary damages for breach of their fiduciary duties as directors, except liability for any of the following:
|●||any breach of their duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;|
|●||acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;|
|●||unlawful payments of dividends or unlawful stock repurchases or redemptions as provided in Section 174 of the DGCL; or|
|●||any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.|
Our amended and restated bylaws also provide that we will indemnify our directors and executive officers and may indemnify our other officers and employees and other agents to the fullest extent permitted by law. Our amended and restated bylaws also permit us to secure insurance on behalf of any officer, director, employee or other agent for any liability arising out of his or her actions in this capacity, regardless of whether our amended and restated bylaws would permit indemnification. We have obtained directors’ and officers’ liability insurance.
We have entered into separate indemnification agreements with our directors and executive officers, in addition to indemnification provided for in our amended and restated bylaws. These agreements, among other things, provide for indemnification of our directors and executive officers for expenses, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by this person in any action or proceeding arising out of this person’s services as a director or executive officer or at our request. We believe that these provisions and agreements are necessary to attract and retain qualified persons as directors and executive officers.
The above description of the indemnification provisions of our amended and restated bylaws and our indemnification agreements is not complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to these documents, each of which is incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement to which this prospectus forms a part.
The limitation of liability and indemnification provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws may discourage stockholders from bringing a lawsuit against directors for breach of their fiduciary duties. They may also reduce the likelihood of derivative litigation against directors and officers, even though an action, if successful, might benefit us and our stockholders. A stockholder’s investment may be harmed to the extent we pay the costs of settlement and damage awards against directors and officers pursuant to these indemnification provisions. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling us pursuant to the foregoing provisions, we have been informed that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and may be unenforceable. There is no pending litigation or proceeding naming any of our directors or officers as to which indemnification is being sought, nor are we aware of any pending or threatened litigation that may result in claims for indemnification by any director or officer.
The Board determines the form and amount of director compensation after its review of recommendations made by the Compensation Committee. A substantial portion of each director’s annual retainer is in the form of equity. Under the Company’s nonemployee director compensation program members of the Board who are not also Company employees (“Non-Employee Directors”) are granted eight hundred (800) options and restricted stock units (“RSUs”) worth up to twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) per annum (the “Annual Award”). A Non-Employee Director who is newly appointed to the Board other than in connection with an annual meeting of stockholders will generally receive a grant of two thousand four hundred (2,400) options and RSUs worth up to seventy-five thousand dollars ($75,000) upon appointment (an “Initial Award”), which covers their compensation for their first three years of service. The Initial Award and Annual Award to Non-Employee Directors will vest as long as they remain directors in equal annual portions over three years following the date in which the award is granted. On February 18, 2021, the board agreed to change 2021 director compensation to eliminate the RSU component of its annual director compensation and increase the stock option component from options for stock worth up to $25,000, to options for stock worth up to $37,500.
The table below shows the compensation paid to our non-employee directors during 2020 and 2019.
|Name||Fees earned or paid in cash||Stock awards ($)||Option awards ($)||Non-equity incentive plan compensation ($)||Nonqualified deferred compensation earnings ($)||All other compensation($)||Total ($)|
(1) Under the Company’s nonemployee director compensation program, Dr. Duhay, Dr. Shrivastava, Mr. Gray and Mr. Jenusaitis were each granted 2,500 Restricted Stock Grants on July 17, 2020, which based on the Company’s closing stock price on the grant date were valued at $10.00 per share. These Restricted Stock Grants fully vested on December 31, 2020.
(2) Under the Company’s nonemployee director compensation program, Dr. Duhay, Dr. Shrivastava, Mr. Gray and Mr. Jenusaitis were each granted 4,000 options to purchase shares of our common stock on July 17, 2020 at an exercise price of $10.00 per share. The options were valued at $7.80 per share as of the date of the grant. All of these options vest in equal quarterly portions from the grant date through December 31, 2020, such that they are fully vested at December 31, 2020, and valued in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718.
(3) Under the Company’s nonemployee director compensation program, Messrs. Gray and Jenusaitis in connection with their appointment to the BOD on September 13, 2019 were each granted 3,125 Restricted Stock units, which based on the Company’s closing stock price on the grant date were valued at $24 per unit. These units vest in equal annual portions on the 9/13/2020, 9/13/2021 and 9/3/2022
(4) Under the Company’s nonemployee director compensation program, Messrs. Gray and Jenusaitis in connection with their appointment to the BOD on September 13, 2019 were each granted 2,400 options to purchase shares of our common stock at an exercise price of $50 per share. The options were valued at $3.25 per share as of the date of the grant. All of these options vest in equal quarterly portions over a 3 year period starting from September 13, 2019 and valued in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 718.
|ITEM 12.||Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters|
The following table lists, as of March 22, 2021, the number of shares of common stock of our Company that are beneficially owned by (i) each person or entity known to our Company to be the beneficial owner of more than 5% of the outstanding common stock; (ii) each officer and director of our Company; and (iii) all officers and directors as a group.
Applicable percentage ownership is based on 8,503,636 shares of common stock outstanding as the date of this Form 10-K. We have determined beneficial ownership in accordance with the rules of the SEC. These rules generally attribute beneficial ownership of securities to persons who possess sole or shared voting or dispositive power with respect to such securities. In addition, pursuant to such rules, we deemed outstanding shares of common stock subject to options or warrants held by that person that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of March 22, 2021. We did not deem such shares outstanding, however, for the purpose of computing the percentage ownership of any other person. Except as indicated by the footnotes below, we believe, based on the information furnished to us, that the beneficial owners named in the table below have sole voting and dispositive power with respect to all shares of our common stock that they beneficially own, subject to applicable community property laws.
|Name and Address of Beneficial Owner (1)||Number
|Analytica Ventures, Inc. (2)||954,142||
|Empery Asset Management LLC(3)||571,428||6.3||%|
|CVI Investments, Inc. (4)||435,714||
|Named Executive Officers and Directors|
|Robert A. Berman (5)||53,944||
|Marc Glickman, M.D.(6)||
|Craig Glynn (7)||1,000||*|
|Francis Duhay, M.D. (8)||
|Dr. Sanjay Shrivastava (9)||
|Matthew Jenusaitis (11)||
|All directors and executive officers as a group (7 persons)||
* Represents beneficial ownership of less than 1%.
|(1)||Except as otherwise noted below, the address for each person or entity listed in the table is c/o Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc., 70 Doppler, Irvine, California 92618.|
Analytica Ventures, Inc. has voting control and investment discretion over the securities it holds. As General Partners of Analytica Ventures, Inc., Mr. Andrew Schacter and Mr. Charles Wachsberg may be deemed to have beneficial ownership (as determined under Section 13(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) of the securities held by Analytica Ventures, Inc. The address for Analytica Ventures, Inc. is 1 Apollo Place, Toronto, ON M3J 0H2 Canada.
|(3)||Empery Asset Management, L.P. is the investment manager to the Empery Funds, has voting control and investment discretion over securities held by the Empery Funds. As Managing Members of Empery AM GP, LLC, the General Partner of the Empery Funds, Mr. Ryan M. Lane and Mr. Martin D. Hoe may be deemed to have beneficial ownership (as determined under Section 13(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended) of the securities held by Empery Asset Management, L.P. The address for Empery Asset Management, L.P. is 1 Rockefeller Plaza, Suite 1205, New York, New York 10020.|
|(4)||Heights Capital Management, Inc., which serves as the investment manager to CVI Investments, Inc., may be deemed to be the beneficial owner of all Shares owned by CVI Investments, Inc. The address for CVI Investments, Inc. is P.O. Box 309GT, Ugland House, South Church Street, George Town, Grand Cayman, KY1-1104, Cayman Islands.|
|(5)||Includes 53,208 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of options that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of March 22, 2021.|
|(6)||Includes 21,580 shares of common stock that are issuable upon exercise of options that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of March 22, 2021.|
|(7)||Includes 1,000 shares of common stock that are issuable upon exercise of options that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of March 22, 2021.|
|(8)||Includes 7,418 shares of common stock that are issuable upon exercise of options that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of March 22, 2021.|
|(9)||Includes 7,418 shares of common stock that are issuable upon exercise of options that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of March 22, 2021.|
|(10)||Includes 6,618 shares of common stock that are issuable upon exercise of options that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of March 22, 2021.|
|(11)||Includes 6,618 shares of common stock that are issuable upon exercise of options that are currently exercisable or exercisable within 60 days of March 22, 2021.|
|ITEM 13.||Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence|
The following is a description of transactions since January 1, 2019 to which we were a party in which (i) the amount involved exceeded or will exceed the lesser of (A) $120,000 or (B) one percent of our average total assets at year end for the last two completed fiscal years and (ii) any of our directors, executive officers or holders of more than 5% of our capital stock, or any member of the immediate family of, or person sharing the household with, any of the foregoing persons, who had or will have a direct or indirect material interest, other than equity and other compensation, termination, change in control and other similar arrangements, which are described under “Executive Compensation.”
As of March 24, 2021, Analytica Ventures owned 954,142 shares of our common stock representing an ownership interest of approximately 10.1%. Analytica Ventures is affiliated through ownership with Axiom Real Time Metrics (Axiom) a vendor to the Company involved in our pivotal trial and first-in-human studies. In connection with those studies, we incurred costs payable to Axiom of approximately $210,000 in 2019 and $820,000 in 2020, respectively.
Indemnification of Officers and Directors
Our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws provide that we will indemnify each of our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. Further, we intend to enter into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and officers, and we intend to purchase a policy of directors’ and officers’ liability insurance that insures our directors and officers against the cost of defense, settlement or payment of a judgment under certain circumstances. For further information, see “Executive Compensation—Limitations of Liability and Indemnification Matters.”
To the best of our knowledge, during the past two fiscal years, other than as set forth above, there were no material transactions, or series of similar transactions, or any currently proposed transactions, or series of similar transactions, to which we were or are to be a party, in which the amount involved exceeds the lesser of (A) $120,000 or (B) one percent of our average total assets at year end for the last two completed fiscal years, and in which any director or executive officer, or any security holder who is known by us to own of record or beneficially more than 5% of any class of our common stock, or any member of the immediate family of any of the foregoing persons, has an interest (other than compensation to our officers and directors in the ordinary course of business).
Policies and Procedures for Related Party Transactions
All future transactions between us and our officers, directors or five percent stockholders, and respective affiliates will be on terms no less favorable than could be obtained from unaffiliated third parties and will be approved by a majority of our independent directors who do not have an interest in the transactions and who had access, at our expense, to our legal counsel or independent legal counsel.
The information provided in Item 10, under the subheading “Director Independence” is incorporated herein.
|ITEM 14.||Principal Accounting Fees and Services|
Audit Fees. The aggregate fees billed by Marcum LLP (“Marcum”) for professional services rendered for the audit of our annual financial statements, review of the financial information included in our Forms 10-Q for the respective periods and other required filings with the SEC for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 totaled $243,750 and $175,407, respectively. The above amounts include interim procedures, audit fees, fees related to registration statements filed during those years, and attendance at audit committee meetings.
All Other Fees. None.
Procedures For Board of Directors Pre-Approval of Audit and Permissible Non-Audit Services of Independent Auditor
Our audit committee is ultimately responsible for reviewing and approving, in advance, any audit and any permissible non-audit engagement or relationship between us and our independent registered public accounting firm. Our engagement of Marcum to conduct all audit and permissible non-audit related activities incurred during fiscal years 2020 and 2019 were approved by our audit committee in accordance with these procedures.
|ITEM 15.||Exhibits and Financial Statements Schedules|
|1.||Consolidated Financial Statements|
Our financial statements and the notes thereto, together with the report of our independent registered public accounting firm on those financial statements, are hereby filed as part of this report beginning on page F-1.
|2.||Financial Statement Schedules|
All financial statement schedules have been omitted since the required information is not applicable or is not present in amounts sufficient to require submission of the schedule, or because the information required is included in the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.
The following is a complete list of exhibits filed as part of this Form 10-K. Exhibit numbers correspond to the numbers in the Exhibit Table of Item 601 of Regulation S-K.
|3.1||Fifth Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 of the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on September 16, 2020).|
|3.2||Amended and Restated Bylaws (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 6, 2018).|
|3.3||Certificate of Amendment to the Fifth Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on December 2, 2020).|
|4.1||Specimen common stock certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-220372) filed on September 7, 2017).|
|4.2||Form of Series A Preferred Stock Placement Agents’ Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.4 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on December 14, 2017).|
|4.3||Form of Series B Preferred Stock Placement Agents’ Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.5 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on December 14, 2017).|
|4.4||Form of Common Stock Purchase Warrant (issued in connection with the 2017 Notes) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.6 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on December 14, 2017).|
|4.5||Form of Underwriters’ Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.7 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on January 26, 2018).|
|4.6||Form of Warrant to Purchase Shares of Common Stock (issued to Mr. Cantor) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.8 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on December 14, 2017).|
|4.7||Form of Amended and Restated Common Stock Purchase Warrant (issued in connection with the 2017 Notes) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.9 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on January 26, 2018).|
|4.8||Form of Common Stock Purchase Warrant (issued in connection with the 2018 Notes) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.10 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on January 26, 2018).|
|4.9||Form of Second Amended and Restated Common Stock Purchase Warrant (issued in connection with the 2017 Notes) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.11 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on April 16, 2018).|
|4.10||Form of Amended and Restated Common Stock Purchase Warrant (issued in connection with the 2018 Notes) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.12 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on April 16, 2018).|
|4.11||Form of Warrant Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.13 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on May 14, 2018).|
|4.12||Amendment to Warrant to Purchase Shares (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.14 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on April 16, 2018).|
|4.13||Form of Warrant Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.15 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on May 14, 2018).|
|4.14||Form of Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 2, 2020).|
|4.15||Form of Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 28, 2020).|
|4.16||Form of Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 3, 2020).|
|4.17||Form of Warrant Agent Agreement, inclusive of Form of Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on July 21, 2020).|
|4.18||Form of Private Placement Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.18 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-239658) filed on July 16, 2020).|
|4.19||Form of Warrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 8, 2020).|
|4.20||Form of Warrant Agent Agreement (including Form of Warrant Certificate) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.20 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333 -251528) filed on February 5, 2021).|
|4.21||Description of the Company’s Securities Registered under Section 12 of the Exchange Act*|
|10.1||Form of Indemnification Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.30 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on December 14, 2017).|
|10.2||Employment Agreement, dated as of March 30, 2018, by and between the Registrant and Robert A. Berman. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.47 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on April 16, 2018).|
|10.3||Amended and Restated 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.50 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-220372) filed on May 14, 2018).|
|10.4||Amendment No. 1 to Amended and Restated 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan.*|
|10.5||Form of Stock Option Grant under Amended and Restated 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.44 to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018).|
|10.6||Form of Restricted Stock Unit under Amended and Restated 2016 Omnibus Incentive Plan (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.45 to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018).|
|10.7||Share Purchase Agreement, dated as March 12, 2019, by and among the Company and the investors signatory thereto (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.46 to the Registrant’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018).|
|10.8||Form of Placement Agency Agreement, between the Company and the placement agent signatory thereto (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 1.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed on June 7, 2019).|
|10.9||Employment Agreement, dated as of July 26, 2019, by and between Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc. and Marc Glickman, M.D. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on August 1, 2019).|
|10.10||Form of Securities Purchase Agreement dated as of February 25, 2020 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on March 2, 2020).|
|10.11||Form of Securities Purchase Agreement, dated as of April 24, 2020 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 28, 2020).|
|10.12||Form of Placement Agency Agreement, dated as of April 24, 2020, by and between Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc. and Spartan Capital Securities, LLC (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on April 28, 2020).|
|10.13||Form of Securities Purchase Agreement dated as of June 1, 2020 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 3, 2020).|
|10.14||Form of Securities Purchase Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.53 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-239658) filed on July 16, 2020).|
|10.15||Form of Registration Rights Agreement (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.54 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (No. 333-239658) filed on July 16, 2020).|
|10.16||Form of Securities Purchase Agreement, dated as of October 7, 2020 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 8, 2020).|
|10.17||Form of Placement Agency Agreement, dated as of October 7, 2020 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 8, 2020).|
|10.18||Employment Agreement, dated as of February 19, 2021, by and between Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc. and Craig Glynn.*|
|14.1||Code of Conduct*|
|21.1||Subsidiaries of the registrant*|
|23.1||Consent of Marcum LLP, independent registered public accounting firm*|
|31.1||Certification of Chief Executive Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) or Rule 15d-14(a) of the Exchange Act. *|
|31.2||Certification of Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) or Rule 15d-14(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. *|
|32||Certification of Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) or Rule 15d-14(a) of the Exchange Act**|
|101.INS||XBRL Instance Document*|
|101.SCH||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document*|
|101.CAL||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document*|
|101.DEF||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document*|
|101.LAB||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document*|
|101.PRE||XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document*|
|**||Furnished and not filed herewith.|
ITEM 16. Form 10-K Summary
Pursuant to the requirements of Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized.
|Date: March 31, 2021||HANCOCK JAFFE LABORATORIES, INC.|
|By:||/s/ Robert Berman|
|Chief Executive Officer|
|(Principal Executive Officer)|
|By:||/s/ Craig Glynn|
|Chief Financial Officer|
|(Principal Financing and Accounting Officer)|
HANCOCK JAFFE LABORATORIES, INC.
REPORT ON FORM 10-K
INDEX TO AUDITED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
|Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm||F-2|
|Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2020 and 2019||F-3|
|Statements of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019||F-4|
|Statements of Stockholders’ Equity for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019||F-5|
|Statements of Cash Flows for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019||F-6|
|Notes to Financial Statements||F-8|
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Shareholders and Board of Directors of
Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc.
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying balance sheets of Hancock Jaffe Laboratories, Inc. (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related statements of operations, changes in stockholders’ equity and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “financial statements”). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) ("PCAOB") and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company's internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.
Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
/s/ Marcum llp
We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2015.
New York, NY
March 31, 2021
HANCOCK JAFFE LABORATORIES, INC.
|Cash and cash equivalents||$||9,334,584||$||1,307,231|
|Prepaid expenses and other current assets||234,467||116,647|
|Total Current Assets||9,569,051||1,423,878|
|Property and equipment, net||398,967||344,027|
|Operating lease right-of-use assets, net||539,974||826,397|
|Security deposits and other assets||29,843||29,843|
|Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity|
|Accrued expenses and other current liabilities||1,135,969||333,438|
|Deferred revenue - related party||33,000||33,000|
|Current portion of operating lease liabilities||314,202||288,685|
|Total Current Liabilities||3,186,233||1,876,312|
|Long-term operating lease liabilities||253,746||567,948|
|Commitments and Contingencies (Note 11)|
|Preferred stock, par value $0.00001, 10,000,000 shares authorized: no shares issued or outstanding||-||-|
|Common stock, par value $0.00001, 250,000,000 shares authorized, 2,541,529 and 717,274 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively||25||7|
|Additional paid-in capital||72,421,242||57,177,858|
|Total Stockholders’ Equity||7,097,856||989,940|
|Total Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity||$||10,537,835||$||3,434,200|
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.
HANCOCK JAFFE LABORATORIES, INC.
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
|For the Years Ended|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||4,882,877||4,911,613|
|Research and development expenses||4,252,249||2,206,120|
|Loss on impairment of intangible asset||-||588,822|
|Loss from Operations||(9,135,126||)||(7,675,312||)|
|Other (Income) Expense:|
|Interest (income) expense, net||(3,739||)||(49,915||)|
|Change in fair value of derivative liabilities||(211,807||)||-|
|Total Other (Income) Expense||360||(49,915||)|
|Deemed dividend to Series C Preferred Stockholders||(607,220||)||-|
|Net Loss Attributable to Common Stockholders||$||(9,742,706||)||$||(7,625,397||)|
|Net Loss Per Basic and Diluted Common Share:||$||(7.54||)||$||(12.10||)|
|Weighted Average Number of Common Shares Outstanding:|
|Basic and Diluted||1,291,469||630,418|
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these financial statements.
HANCOCK JAFFE LABORATORIES, INC.
STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
|Balance at January 1, 2019||468,904||$||5||$||50,598,966||$||(48,562,528||)||$||2,036,443|
stock issued in private
placement offering 
stock issued in public
|Share-based compensation ||9,825||941,962||-||941,962|
|Balance at December 31, 2019||717,274||$||7||$||57,177,858||$||(56,187,925||)||$||989,940|
 net of offering costs of $387,000.
 net of offering costs of $549,000.
 net of forfeiture of 246 shares.
|Series C Convertible Preferred Stock||Common Stock||Additional Paid-in||Accumulated||Total Stockholders’|
|Balance at January 1, 2020||-||$||-||717,274||$||7||$||57,177,858||$||(56,187,925||)||$||989,940|
|Common stock issued in private placement offering ||52,000||1||24,304||-|